Harassment by means of email, text (or online) messages or the internet. It can take many forms, including but not limited to:
- Unwanted sexually explicit emails, text (or online) messages;
- Inappropriate or offensive advances on social networking websites or internet chat rooms;
- Threats of physical and/or sexual violence by email, text (or online) messages;
- Hate speech, meaning language that denigrates, insults, threatens or targets an individual based on her identity (gender) and other traits (such as sexual orientation or disability).
European Institute for Gender Equality (2017). Cyber violence against women and girls.