• Luxembourg

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework The government plays an important role in ensuring gender balance in research organisations in Luxembourg. The Fund for National Research (FNR) (Law of 31 May 1999, amended by the Law of 27 August 2014) and the organisation of Public Research Centres (Law of 29 December 2014) are both required to have gender-balance on...

  • Lithuania

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework Prior to 2020, there were very few initiatives to adopt or amend legislation that would significantly contribute to institutional change in mainstreaming gender equality in science and research. The key law that explicitly identifies gender equality in public life is the Law on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men ( Lietuvos Respublikos moteru...

  • Latvia

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework The Law on Scientific Activity has been in force since 2005. The corresponding secondary law stipulates that a person performing scientific activities will be allowed to do so regardless of race, nationality, gender, language, age, political and religious beliefs, social origin, property, family or service status and other circumstances. The Labour Law prohibition...

  • Italy

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework Law 183/2010 established the Unique Guarantee Committees for Equal Opportunities in Public Administrations for Workers’ Wellbeing and against Discrimination ( Comitati unici di garanzia per le pari opportunità, la valorizzazione del benessere di chi lavora e contro le discriminazioni , CUGs). These Committees replaced the previous Equal Opportunities Committees (CPOs). Although the Law...

  • Ireland

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework The relevant legislative acts promoting gender equality in Irish Higher Education and Research include: Employment Equality Acts 1998 to 2015, which prohibit discrimination in a wide range of employment and employment-related areas including recruitment and promotion, equal pay, working conditions, training or experience, dismissal and harassment including sexual harassment and victimisation) [1]...

  • Hungary

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework Act CXXV of 2003 on Equal Treatment and the Promotion of Equal Opportunities is the main legislation guaranteeing equal treatment in Hungary. It recognises a number of protected grounds, including gender, pregnancy, motherhood and fatherhood. According to the Act, a person cannot be treated less favourably than a person in a comparable situation...

  • Greece

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework Law 2839/2000 requires one-third gender representation in all decision-making public body committees, including those of universities and research institutions. More specifically, one-third representation of the minority sex is needed for all decision-making public body committees, provided that potential members have the same level of qualifications. Law 3549/2007, on reform of the institutional framework...

  • Germany

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework In addition to general legal provisions on gender equality at federal and state level, there are specific legal provisions on gender equality in public research. § 3 of the 2007 Framework Act for Higher Education ( Hochschulrahmengesetz , HRG) obliges universities to promote gender equality and strive to eliminate existing inequalities. Compliance with...

  • France

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework The main gender equality laws that apply to higher education institutions (HEIs) and research organisations are either the general laws that apply to everyone or to civil servants specifically, since there are few private universities in France. Sauvadet Law No. 2012-347 of 12 March 2012 introduced new regulations for public servants. It contains...

  • Finland

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework Finland has no specific legal provisions to promote gender equality in research nor obligations targeting research institutions. However, § 5 of the Act on Equality between Women and Men (609/1986) on achieving gender equality in teaching and education refers to research: “Teaching, research and educational materials must promote the objectives of the Act”...

  • Estonia

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework The Gender Equality Act [1] was adopted in 2004 and last amended in June 2014. It includes several references to the promotion of gender equality in research and innovation, as outlined below. § 10. Promotion of gender equality in education and training “Educational and research institutions and other organisations delivering training shall ensure...

  • Denmark

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework The Gender Equality Act [1] entered into force in 2000. It states that public authorities (including universities and other research organisations) shall seek to promote gender equality and incorporate gender equality in all planning and administration within their scope. It also stipulates that boards, assemblies of representatives or similar collective management bodies within...