• Poland

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework The principle of equality between women and men is embedded in the Polish Constitution, the Labour Code and the Act on the Promotion of Employment and Labour Market Institutions. The Act on Implementation of Several European Union Regulations on Equal Treatment of 3 December 2010 aims to counteract violation of equal treatment and to determine the measures and authorities responsible for the prevention of equal treatment.

  • Netherlands

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework The Higher Education and Scientific Research Act was published in 1992 and contains several references to discrimination. Article 1.3.5 states that “higher education institutions [HEIs] shall also pay attention to the personal development of their students and the promotion of their sense of social responsibility. The promotion of social responsibility shall include, at a minimum, that institutions, including those who formally or informally represent them, refrain from discriminatory conduct and statements.” Articles 9.32 and 10.19, on the general duties and tasks of the council and council members of universities and universities of applied sciences, state that “the council shall also guard against discrimination on any grounds whatsoever in the university in general and in particular shall promote the equal treatment of men and women as well as the inclusion of persons with disabilities or chronic illnesses and people with a minority ethnic background.” Policy framework In 2020, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (OCW) formulated a “National Action Plan for Greater Diversity and Inclusion in Higher Education and Research”.

  • Malta

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework As of June 2021, no national laws promoting gender equality in research were adopted in Malta. However, the Maltese Parliament is at advanced stages of discussion of the Equality Bill, with approval expected in the second half of 2021. This Bill consolidates and strengthens the current equality legislation in Malta, ensuring equal protection against discrimination for all protected characteristics (gender, disability, race, sexual orientation, etc.) in all areas of life.

  • Luxembourg

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework The government plays an important role in ensuring gender balance in research organisations in Luxembourg. The Fund for National Research (FNR) (Law of 31 May 1999, amended by the Law of 27 August 2014) and the organisation of Public Research Centres (Law of 29 December 2014) are both required to have gender-balance on their Board of Directors (at least 40 % of the underrepresented sex).

  • Lithuania

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework Prior to 2020, there were very few initiatives to adopt or amend legislation that would significantly contribute to institutional change in mainstreaming gender equality in science and research. The key law that explicitly identifies gender equality in public life is the Law on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men (Lietuvos Respublikos moteru ir vyru lygiu galimybiu istatymas, No.

  • Latvia

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework The Law on Scientific Activity has been in force since 2005. The corresponding secondary law stipulates that a person performing scientific activities will be allowed to do so regardless of race, nationality, gender, language, age, political and religious beliefs, social origin, property, family or service status and other circumstances. The Labour Law prohibition of discrimination against a person on the basis of their gender, race and various other circumstances is the only sub-clause regulating gender equality.

  • Italy

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework Law 183/2010 established the Unique Guarantee Committees for Equal Opportunities in Public Administrations for Workers’ Wellbeing and against Discrimination (Comitati unici di garanzia per le pari opportunità, la valorizzazione del benessere di chi lavora e contro le discriminazioni, CUGs). These Committees replaced the previous Equal Opportunities Committees (CPOs). Although the Law indicates general rules for the Committees’ composition, the task of drafting internal regulations on their election and functioning remains with public administrations (including universities and research organisations).

  • Ireland

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework The relevant legislative acts promoting gender equality in Irish Higher Education and Research include: Employment Equality Acts 1998 to 2015, which prohibit discrimination in a wide range of employment and employment-related areas including recruitment and promotion, equal pay, working conditions, training or experience, dismissal and harassment including sexual harassment and victimisation)[1]; Equal Status Acts 2000-2015, which prohibit discrimination on nine grounds including gender.

  • Hungary

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework Act CXXV of 2003 on Equal Treatment and the Promotion of Equal Opportunities is the main legislation guaranteeing equal treatment in Hungary. It recognises a number of protected grounds, including gender, pregnancy, motherhood and fatherhood. According to the Act, a person cannot be treated less favourably than a person in a comparable situation because of their status in respect of one of the protected grounds.

  • Greece

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework Law 2839/2000 requires one-third gender representation in all decision-making public body committees, including those of universities and research institutions. More specifically, one-third representation of the minority sex is needed for all decision-making public body committees, provided that potential members have the same level of qualifications. Law 3549/2007, on reform of the institutional framework of the structure and functioning of higher education institutions (HEIs) in Greece, sets out contributing to gender equality as one of the main missions of the country’s HEIs.

  • Germany

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework In addition to general legal provisions on gender equality at federal and state level, there are specific legal provisions on gender equality in public research. § 3 of the 2007 Framework Act for Higher Education (Hochschulrahmengesetz, HRG) obliges universities to promote gender equality and strive to eliminate existing inequalities. Compliance with this provision is a criterion for granting public funding to universities (HRG, § 5).

  • France

    PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework The main gender equality laws that apply to higher education institutions (HEIs) and research organisations are either the general laws that apply to everyone or to civil servants specifically, since there are few private universities in France. Sauvadet Law No. 2012-347 of 12 March 2012 introduced new regulations for public servants. It contains provisions regarding the equal access of women to senior positions within the internal structure of respective ministries, including research.