Gender-based violence that is perpetrated through electronic communication and the internet. 

Additional notes and information

Although cyber violence can affect both women and men, women and girls experience different and more traumatic forms of cyber violence.

There are various forms of cyber violence against women and girls, including, but not limited to, cyber stalking, non-consensual pornography (or ‘revenge porn’), gender-based slurs, hate speech and harassment, ‘slut-shaming’, unsolicited pornography, ‘sextortion’, rape threats and death threats, and electronically facilitated trafficking.

Cyber violence is not a separate phenomenon to ‘real world’ violence, as it often follows the same patterns as offline violence.


European Institute for Gender Equality (2017). Cyber violence against women and girls.