Policy or practice that is mainly symbolic, and involves attempting to fulfil one’s obligations with regard to established targets, such as voluntary or mandated gender quotas, with limited efforts or gestures, especially towards minority groups and women, in ways that will not change men-dominated power and/or organisational arrangements. 

Additional notes and information

The practice has also often been observed in the nomination of candidates for elections.


Review of articles on the introduction of gender quotas to increase women’s participation in elected assemblies in the so-called Western Balkan countries.