Work that produces goods and services but which carries no direct remuneration or other form of payment like housework and care work.


Additional notes and information

Unpaid work is unevenly distributed among women and men, with women having a higher participation rate in this unremunerated work.


(1) Alexander, P., and Baden, S. (2000). Glossary on Macroeconomics from a Gender Perspective. Bridge Institute of Development Studies. Available at:; (2) European Commission (1998). 100 Words for Equality: A Glossary of Terms on Equality between Women and Men; (3) EIGE and independent experts.