Various forms of non-standard, atypical, alternative employment. 

Additional notes and information

Irregular and/or precarious work is frequently associated with part-time employment, seasonal and casual work, self-employment, fixed-term work, temporary work, on-call work, home-based workers, and agency work.

Dimensions of such work may include, inter alia, uncertainty of continuing work, a lack of control over the labour process, low income and limited social and regulatory protection. The erosion of the standard employment relationship may render the employment of women more precarious.


(1) International Labour Organization – Bureau of Statistics. Defining and Measuring Informal Employment. Available at:; (2) Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development – OECD. Available at:…