Migrant women and exclusion in Europe
This article examines exclusionary practives confronted by non-EU women migrants seeking entry to the EU. It points to the growing feminization and diversity of contemporary immigration flows, and the increasingly restrictive policies of immigration control pursued at European level and by individual states. It is argued that the concept of social exclusion needs to be extended to include examination of the conditions under which migrants are able to enter Europe and the legal conditions of that residence. Gender is a crucial dimension since these conditions have different impacts on men and women. Formal citizenship status continues to be important in structuring access to civic, social and political rights enjoyed by European residents. The specific forms of exclusion experienced by female migrants entering Europe under different migrant statuses (labor migrants, through family reunion and as asylum seekers) are then discussed.