Effect that deprives a statistical result of representativeness by systematically distorting it, due to prejudiced actions or thoughts based on gender-based perceptions that women are not equal to men. 


The answers to questions on physical or sexual violence against women would be completely biased if the woman’s partner or other relatives were present during the interview.


(1) Based on Eurostat definition of statistical bias. Available at:…; (2) EIGE experts.