PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework Law 2839/2000 requires one-third gender representation in all decision-making public body committees, including those of universities and research institutions. More specifically, one-third representation of the minority sex is needed for all decision-making public body committees, provided that potential members have the same level of qualifications. Law 3549/2007, on reform of the institutional framework of the structure and functioning of higher education institutions (HEIs) in Greece, sets out contributing to gender equality as one of the main missions of the country’s HEIs.
PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework In addition to general legal provisions on gender equality at federal and state level, there are specific legal provisions on gender equality in public research. § 3 of the 2007 Framework Act for Higher Education (Hochschulrahmengesetz, HRG) obliges universities to promote gender equality and strive to eliminate existing inequalities. Compliance with this provision is a criterion for granting public funding to universities (HRG, § 5).
PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework The main gender equality laws that apply to higher education institutions (HEIs) and research organisations are either the general laws that apply to everyone or to civil servants specifically, since there are few private universities in France. Sauvadet Law No. 2012-347 of 12 March 2012 introduced new regulations for public servants. It contains provisions regarding the equal access of women to senior positions within the internal structure of respective ministries, including research.
PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework Finland has no specific legal provisions to promote gender equality in research nor obligations targeting research institutions. However, § 5 of the Act on Equality between Women and Men (609/1986) on achieving gender equality in teaching and education refers to research: “Teaching, research and educational materials must promote the objectives of the Act”.
PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework The Gender Equality Act was adopted in 2004 and last amended in June 2014. It includes several references to the promotion of gender equality in research and innovation, as outlined below. § 10. Promotion of gender equality in education and training “Educational and research institutions and other organisations delivering training shall ensure equal treatment of men and women in vocational guidance, education, professional and vocational development and re-training.
PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework The Gender Equality Act entered into force in 2000. It states that public authorities (including universities and other research organisations) shall seek to promote gender equality and incorporate gender equality in all planning and administration within their scope. It also stipulates that boards, assemblies of representatives or similar collective management bodies within universities must work towards achieving equal gender balance, for example by requiring balanced representation of both sexes on councils and committees.
PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework As of the end of 2020, Czechia has not adopted any specific legislation dedicated to promoting gender equality in research and innovation. Policy framework The State of Gender Equality and Proposal for Mid-Term Strategic Plan in Gender Equality within the Remit of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports was developed in 2013.
PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework As of August 2021, Cyprus has not put in place any laws or regulations explicitly promoting gender equality in research and innovation. Policy framework The most recent policy document on gender mainstreaming in education and research is the Strategic Plan for the Equality of Women and Men in Education 2018-2020, replacing the earlier 2014-2017 Plan.
PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework Significant positive change is evident in gender equality in Croatia in the last 15 years. These improvements, however, largely centred on legislative change and developing central key structures for gender equality. The legal framework ensuring the promotion of gender equality in Croatia has several intertwined parts. Gender equality is first guaranteed by the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia, and then developed further in the Gender Equality Act.
PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework As of the end of 2020, Bulgaria had not adopted any specific laws or regulations on promoting gender equality in research and innovation. However, in April 2016, the Bulgarian Parliament adopted the Equality between Women and Men Act (EWMA). The EWMA imposes obligations on the Minister of Labour and Social Policy to "coordinate the establishment and the maintenance of a system for gender equality monitoring and the drafting of a report on gender equality in the Republic of Bulgaria”.
PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework Belgium has specific laws and policies in place to improve gender equality in research institutions (research and decision-making) at the level of the Flemish and French Communities. In Flanders, a set of decrees issued in 2012 foresee targets for the participation of the underrepresented sex in public universities’ decision-making bodies. Women’s participation in research is also indirectly addressed through special research funds (Bijzonder Onderzoeksfondsen, valid from 1 January 2013).
PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework The Federal Law for Equal Treatment in Federal Bodies stipulates affirmative action in areas where women are underrepresented and applies to Austria’s 22 public universities. Non-university research organisations are covered by the Equal Treatment Act, which foresees gender equality rather than affirmative action. Between the end of 2014 and mid-2016, the then-Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection and then-Federal Ministry of Health and Women's Affairs jointly evaluated the instruments for enforcing equal treatment.