PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework Finland has no specific legal provisions to promote gender equality in research nor obligations targeting research institutions. However, § 5 of the Act on Equality between Women and Men (609/1986) on achieving gender equality in teaching and education refers to research: “Teaching, research and educational materials must promote the objectives of the Act”.
PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework The Gender Equality Act was adopted in 2004 and last amended in June 2014. It includes several references to the promotion of gender equality in research and innovation, as outlined below. § 10. Promotion of gender equality in education and training “Educational and research institutions and other organisations delivering training shall ensure equal treatment of men and women in vocational guidance, education, professional and vocational development and re-training.
PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework The Gender Equality Act entered into force in 2000. It states that public authorities (including universities and other research organisations) shall seek to promote gender equality and incorporate gender equality in all planning and administration within their scope. It also stipulates that boards, assemblies of representatives or similar collective management bodies within universities must work towards achieving equal gender balance, for example by requiring balanced representation of both sexes on councils and committees.
PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework As of the end of 2020, Czechia has not adopted any specific legislation dedicated to promoting gender equality in research and innovation. Policy framework The State of Gender Equality and Proposal for Mid-Term Strategic Plan in Gender Equality within the Remit of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports was developed in 2013.
PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework As of August 2021, Cyprus has not put in place any laws or regulations explicitly promoting gender equality in research and innovation. Policy framework The most recent policy document on gender mainstreaming in education and research is the Strategic Plan for the Equality of Women and Men in Education 2018-2020, replacing the earlier 2014-2017 Plan.
PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework Significant positive change is evident in gender equality in Croatia in the last 15 years. These improvements, however, largely centred on legislative change and developing central key structures for gender equality. The legal framework ensuring the promotion of gender equality in Croatia has several intertwined parts. Gender equality is first guaranteed by the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia, and then developed further in the Gender Equality Act.
PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework As of the end of 2020, Bulgaria had not adopted any specific laws or regulations on promoting gender equality in research and innovation. However, in April 2016, the Bulgarian Parliament adopted the Equality between Women and Men Act (EWMA). The EWMA imposes obligations on the Minister of Labour and Social Policy to "coordinate the establishment and the maintenance of a system for gender equality monitoring and the drafting of a report on gender equality in the Republic of Bulgaria”.
PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework Belgium has specific laws and policies in place to improve gender equality in research institutions (research and decision-making) at the level of the Flemish and French Communities. In Flanders, a set of decrees issued in 2012 foresee targets for the participation of the underrepresented sex in public universities’ decision-making bodies. Women’s participation in research is also indirectly addressed through special research funds (Bijzonder Onderzoeksfondsen, valid from 1 January 2013).
PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY IN RESEARCH Legal framework The Federal Law for Equal Treatment in Federal Bodies stipulates affirmative action in areas where women are underrepresented and applies to Austria’s 22 public universities. Non-university research organisations are covered by the Equal Treatment Act, which foresees gender equality rather than affirmative action. Between the end of 2014 and mid-2016, the then-Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection and then-Federal Ministry of Health and Women's Affairs jointly evaluated the instruments for enforcing equal treatment.
Main section Videos and webinars Tools and resources With the introduction/start of Horizon Europe, the European Commission made gender equality plans (GEPs) a basic requirement for participation in its research framework programme. It defined GEPs as: a set of commitments and actions that aim to promote gender equality in an organisation through a process of structural change. This policy instrument strives to sustainably transform organisational processes, cultures and structures within the field of research and innovation (R & I) to combat and reduce gender imbalances and inequalities.
In the specific context of research organisations and higher education institutions, the European Commission considers a Gender Equality Plan as a set of actions aiming at: Conducting impact assessment / audits of procedures and practices to identify gender bias; Identifying and implementing innovative strategies to correct any bias; Setting targets and monitoring progress via indicators. Source: European Commission Communication on ‘A Reinforced European Research Area Partnership for Excellence and Growth’ (COM(2012) 392 final) This set of actions, which can have different degrees of complexity, is meant to articulate a strategic view aimed at achieving gender equality.
Main section Videos and webinars Tools and resources What is the problem/issue? As She Figures, published by the European Commission shows, research and innovation (R & I) is highly segregated by gender and marked by considerable gender gaps. Women and men tend to concentrate in certain scientific fields (horizontal segregation). For example, while women are more likely to be found in fields such as social sciences and humanities, men are more inclined to study, teach and/or research topics related to engineering or technology.