Stalking by means of email, text (or online) messages or the internet. Stalking involves repeated incidents, which may or may not individually be innocuous acts, but combined undermine the victim’s sense of safety and cause distress, fear or alarm.

Additional notes and information

Acts can include:

  • Sending emails, text messages (SMS) or instant messages that are offensive or threatening;
  • Posting offensive comments about the respondent on the internet;
  • Sharing intimate photos or videos of the respondent, on the internet or by mobile phone.

To be considered as cyber stalking, these acts must take place repeatedly and be perpetrated by the same person.


European Institute for Gender Equality (2017). Cyber violence against women and girls.