Concentration of women and men in different grades, levels of responsibility or positions.

See also: horizontal segregation

Additional notes and information

It indicates the under- (or over-) representation of women and men workers in occupations or sectors at the top of an ordering based on ‘desirable’ attributes (income, prestige, job stability, etc.), independent of the sector of activity.


(1) European Commission (1998). 100 Words for Equality: A Glossary of Terms on Equality between Women and Men; (2) Bettio, F., and Verashchagina, A. (2009). Gender Segregation in the Labour Market. Root Causes, Implications and Policy Responses in the EU.