Organisation of working time, part-time work, overtime and night work in a flexible way.

Additional notes and information

Formulas of working time offer a range of possibilities in relation to the number of hours worked and the arrangements of rosters, shifts or work schedules by day, week, month or year.

Shift work, unusual hours and overtime can be seen as examples of employer-centred flexible working time arrangements; conversely, leave schemes for family matters e.g. the possibility of varying the start and/or end of the working day and the possibility of organising working time in order to take whole days off for family reasons, without using holidays, are examples of employee-centred working time arrangements, or arrangements to support work–family balance.

Working time flexibility can be rated as contributing to gender equality because it helps individuals to maintain work–life balance. However, it also brings disadvantages, such as the concentration of women in low-paid, part-time work, with little or no training or career opportunities available.


(1) EurWORK (2011). Flexibile Working Time Arrangements and Gender Equality. Available at:…; (2) European Commission (1998). 100 Words for Equality: A Glossary of Terms on Equality between Women and Men; (3) European Commission (2014). Family Related Working Schedule Flexibility across Europe. Short statistical report No 6 prepared by RAND Europe.