Over the past decades considerable progress has been made in relation to women’s labour market participation.

However, deep gender gaps persist as a result of discriminatory norms and attitudes, unequal distribution of care responsibilities and the failure of institutions to integrate gender into policymaking. The biggest gender gaps in the labour market relate to the rate of employment, part-time work, unpaid care and family responsibilities, access to rights and assets, working conditions, hourly wages and economic independence.