Policy cycle in transport
In this phase, it is recommended that information is gathered on the situation of women and men in a particular area. This means looking for sex-disaggregated data and gender statistics, and checking for the existence of studies, programme or project reports, and/or evaluations from previous periods.
Examples of gender and transport statistics
The issue of taking account of gender in transport is a fairly recent one. Since transport-related statistics generally do not differentiate between men and women, it is hard to understand the differences in reasons for making trips, trip frequency, distances travelled and mobility-related problems in gaining access to health services, employment, etc. Furthermore, even in cases where attention is paid to collecting sex-disaggregated data, these often do not provide disaggregated data on time of day of travel or the full-nature of multi-purpose complex journey patterns undertaken by women. Therefore, more gender statistics are necessary for better design of policies in the transport sector. Particular attention should be paid to sex-disaggregated time data, as they could highlight the complexity of mobility patterns and the interaction between people in scheduling mobility and the interaction between mobility and other household activities.
European Commission DG MOVE
The database at Community level (CARE – Community database on accidents on the roads in Europe) makes it possible to identify and quantify road safety problems, evaluate the efficiency of road safety measures, determine the relevance of Community actions and facilitate the exchange of experience in this field. Data on accidents are disaggregated by sex, road type user, age class and type of area. Data are available on the DG MOVE website and, partially, on the Eurostat database on Transport.
The SARTRE (Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe) project, co-financed by the European Commission Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport, started in 1991. It consists of a European-wide survey about knowledge of road traffic laws and road traffic risks, attitudes regarding road safety issues, reported road traffic behaviours, transport habits and needs in several European countries. Various topics related to road safety are in the focus of the project such as alcohol, drugs, or phone use while driving, speeding, use of advanced driver assistance systems and the transport infrastructure and environment. Since the first edition of SARTRE, a follow-up was performed in 1996 (SARTRE 2) and 2002 (SARTRE 3) among an increasing number of countries (15 in 1991, 19 in 1996 and 23 in 2002). Data collection for this fourth edition started in 2010. The SARTRE 4 survey includes 19 countries, 17 of which are included in the EU-28. The objective of the survey was to describe actual opinions and (self-reported) behaviours towards traffic risk and road safety of these 3 road user groups in countries covered by the project. Methodology foreseen the inclusion of women in the sample, and data are collected and analysed with a gender perspective. The database of the survey is not available to the public, but reports of analyses, including data and statistics, are available.
European Union Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS)
The European Union Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) provides the main aggregated statistics on labour market outcomes in the European Union. The EU-LFS is the main data source for employment and unemployment. Tables on population, employment, working hours, permanency of job, professional status etc. are included. It provides disaggregated statistics by sex, age groups, economic activity, education attainment and field of education, from which it is possible to measure the presence of women working in the transport sector.
Harmonised European Time Use Survey (HETUS)
The Harmonised European Time Use Survey (HETUS) web application offers the opportunity to calculate user defined, comparable statistical tables on the organisation and activities of everyday life in eight European countries. It provides a great variety of statistical images of people’s use of time in 15 EU MS (Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Sweden, UK, Spain, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Poland), including gender statistics.
Examples of studies, research and reports
CIVITAS Policy Notes: smart choices for cities, Gender equality and mobility: mind the gap! 2014
The publication presents an analysis of the gender issues in transport and provides some gender-sensitive experiences of pioneering European countries and cities that have started embedding gender mainstreaming in urban and mobility planning.
INFSTTAR, WIT, She moves: Women’s issues in transportation, 2014
The paper produced on behalf of the European Commission, Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport (DG MOVE), considers gender differences in transport and mobility. The paper analyses the achievement of equity through mobility and looks at gender differences in different aspects of the transport and mobility fields (e.g. road security, car design, public transport availability).
Beecham R., and Wood, J., ‘Exploring gendered cycling behaviours within a large-scale behavioural dataset’, Transportation Planning and Technology, Vol. 37 Issue 1, 2014, pp. 83 – 97
This paper analyses over 10 million journeys made by members of London’s cycle hire scheme in order to see if there are any gender differences in cycling behaviours. The results of the analysis show that female customers’ usage characteristics are demonstrably different from those of male customers.
Turnbull P., ILO working paper, Promoting the employment of women in the transport sector – obstacles and policy options, 2013
This study focuses on the working conditions and the HR policies of transport companies designed to mainstream gender, the opportunities for success and advancement, and the barriers faced by women who work in the transport sector.
Peters D., Gender and sustainable urban mobility, Thematic study prepared for the Global Report on Human Settlements, 2013
This report is designed to:
- present empirical evidence of trends and conditions of gendered transport usage, differentiated by various modes of travel, and of gendered employment in urban transport;
- review impacts and challenges related to these gender differences;
- review policy responses designed to address these gender inequalities and their resulting challenges; iv) provide summary findings and present lessons for policy.
International Association of Public Transport, European Transport Workers’ Federation, Women Employment in Urban Public Transport Sector, 2012
The report examines the employment situation of women in urban public transport companies in Europe.
Scheiner J., and Holz-Rau C., ‘Gendered travel mode choice: A focus on car deficient households’, Journal of Transport Geography 24, 2012, pp. 250 – 261
This article studies choice in mode of travel with a focus on car use in car deficient households from a gender perspective. Car deficient households are defined as households with more drivers than cars. The paper derives some key hypotheses from the literature and uses the German Mobility Panel 1994 to 2008 to simultaneously test some of these hypotheses in a pooled data approach with cluster robust regression techniques. The paper concludes with an outlook on further research.
International Transport Forum, Gender and transport, discussion paper no. 11, 2011
The report analyses how gender is considered in the transport sector. The report begins with an overview of the situation, and then presents good practices and a set of recommendations. It addresses both developed and developing countries, urban and rural areas, and infrastructure and services.
The Co-ordination for Gender Studies, University of Copenhagen, Gender mainstreaming European transport research and policies. Building the knowledge base and mapping good practices, 2007
This report advances our understanding of gendered perspectives on current and future transport policies and contributes both to clarifying the goals of European transport policy and to balancing the goals of transport, sustainability and gender equality. In responding to the call for a broader and more flexible transport policy related to economic, social and environmental needs, as well as to the call for a more gender-balanced Europe, the report suggests a complex and integrated framework for understanding some of the major goals of the EU in the 21st century.
Eurofound, Innovative gender equality measures in the transport industry, 2007
The report aims to investigate the development and implementation of innovative measures designed to foster gender equality in the transport sector. To this end, the report outlines and analyses eight innovative measures that have been taken by national trade unions or other social partner groups in seven countries: Croatia, France, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. The common characteristic uniting all of these measures is their central objective of improving gender equality at the workplace in a number of transport subsectors.
European Parliament, Women and transport, IP/B/TRAN/ST/2005_008, 2006
This report analyses the nature of the gender imbalance in the transport sector in EU Member States. It highlights the nature of travel differences between men and women as transport users and consumers and the implications this has for planning, operations and management of the transport system. It sets out the challenges faced by institutions within the transport sector to mainstream gender equality. It also highlights the male domination of employment within all areas of the transport labour force and the few examples of good practice that are trying to overcome women's under-representation in this industry. Furthermore, it proposes criteria for gender mainstreaming within the European transport system and a series of concrete actions.
SIRC, Sex differences in driving and insurance risks, 2004
The article includes an analysis of the social and psychological differences between men and women that are relevant to their driving behaviour.
Hamilton K., ‘A gender audit for public transport: A new policy tool, Tackling of Social Exclusion’, Urban Studies, Vol. 37 Issue 10, 2000, pp. 1793 – 1800
This paper identifies the goals and progress of the Gender Audit for Public Transport to date. It considers why we need a public transport gender audit and examines the major gender differences that have relevance for transport policymakers, planners and providers.
Examples of gender analysis
City of Vienna, Gender mainstreaming in urban planning and urban development, 2013
Gender mainstreaming in urban planning aims for systematic quality evaluation with regard to the equality of opportunities allotted to different user groups. In the sense of ensuring ‘fair shares in the city’ for all, it must be established what sort of benefits (or, possibly, impediments) result from planning decisions. For this reason, this guide provides indications on how to carry out a gender analysis of urban planning and urban development policies, including transport, in order to ensure the mainstreaming of the gender perspective.
European Parliament, Briefing Note on the role of women in the green economy: The issue of mobility, 2012
This note highlights the characteristics and determinants of gender differences in mobility patterns emerging from the literature and presents an overview of how transport policies have been adapted to support women’s mobility needs, focusing on examples of practices implemented in 4 European countries. Furthermore, the note includes a check list to carry out a gender analysis/audit of mobility policies and programmes.
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), Gender in urban rehabilitation and transport projects, Guidance Note, 2011
This guidance note aims to provide practical guidance to EBRD specialists and consultants on how gender mainstreaming can be applied and considered when planning projects. The guidance note includes a checklist for carrying out a gender analysis of transport projects from the design stage to evaluation.
Examples of gender impact assessments
Transport for London, Equality impact assessments: How to do them, 2004
The purpose of this guide is to improve the work of Transport for London by making sure it does not discriminate and that, where possible, it promotes equality through the realisation of an impact assessment of transport policies. The guide provides indications on when and how to carry out equality impact assessments. The guide also includes indications on how to take the gender perspective into consideration.
Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area – Towards a competitive and resource-efficient transport system (SEC(2011) 359 final, SEC(2011) 391 final, COM(2011) 144 final).
This white paper includes a specific section on the impact of the policy on employment level and conditions, including on gender balance.
Examples of stakeholders that can be consulted
European Transport Workers’ Federation - Women’s Committee
The Women's Committee of the European Transport Workers' Federation.
Advancing Women in Transportation
Advancing Women in Transportation is an international association that trys to advance participation of women in the transportation industry.
Women’s Design Service
Women's Design Service is an organisation dedicated to improving the built environment for women.
In this phase, it’s appropriate to analyse budgets from a gender perspective. Gender budgeting is used to identify how budget allocations contribute to promoting gender equality. Gender budgeting brings visibility to how much public money is spent for women and men respectively. Thus, gender budgeting ensures that public funds are fairly distributed between women and men. It also contributes to accountability and transparency about how public funds are being spent.
Examples of gender budgeting in transport
Council of Europe, Gender budgeting: practical implementation, 2009
The focus of this publication is to act as a guide to the practice of gender budgeting. Even though the handbook does not refer exclusively to transport, transport is one of the fields used as an example for applying gender budgeting.
Asian Development Bank, Gender tool kit: Transport. Maximizing the benefits of improved mobility for all, 2013
The toolkit provides guidance for transport sector specialists and gender specialists by drawing attention to the gender dimensions of transport, and how to mainstream gender equality issues into transport project design, implementation and policy engagement. The guide also provides indications on how to use gender budgeting in the transport section.
Examples of indicators for monitoring gender and transport
Lack of sex-disaggregated data in transport is a major problem in adopting gender-oriented policy in this field. While the European Commission made efforts to collect data disaggregated by sex, many of the indicators used in the field are not disaggregated this way. However, the following are useful indicators for measuring gender inequalities in transport sector.
Percentage of women employed in transport by sex
Participation of women in the transport sector is quite low. The figure may be derived from the percentage of women employed in transport (land transport and transport via pipelines, water transport, air transport, warehousing and support activities for transportation, postal and courier activities) based on Eurostat data.
People killed in road accidents by sex (CARE data)
The number of women and men killed in road accidents is available from CARE – Community database on accidents on the roads in Europe, and is presented in the Eurostat database on transport.
When preparing calls for proposals as part of funding programmes, or terms of reference for public procurement procedures, do not forget to formalise gender-related requirements. This particularly affects contractors to be hired for policy support services. This will ensure the projects and services which the European Commission will fund are not gender-blind or gender-biased.
Examples of procurement
Asian Development Bank, Gender tool kit: Transport. Maximizing the benefits of improved mobility for all, 2013
The toolkit provides guidance for transport sector specialists and gender specialists by drawing attention to the gender dimensions of transport, and how to mainstream gender equality issues into transport project design, implementation, and policy engagement. The guide includes specific examples of terms of references for gender experts in transport.
European Commission, Buying social: A guide to taking account of social considerations in public procurement, 2010
The purpose of this guide is to raise contracting authorities’ awareness of the potential benefits of social responsible public procurement (SRPP). It also explains in a practical way the opportunities offered by the existing EU legal framework for public authorities to take social considerations into account in their public procurement, thus paying attention not only to price but also to the best value for money. SRPP covers a wide spectrum of social considerations, which may be taken into account by contracting authorities at the appropriate stage of the procurement procedure.
Even though not specifically designed for transport, it can be also used in the transport sector.
In the implementation phase of a policy or programme, ensure that all who are involved are sufficiently aware about the relevant gender objectives and plans. If not, set up briefings and capacity-building initiatives according to staff needs. Think about researchers, proposal evaluators, monitoring and evaluation experts, scientific officers, programme committee members, etc.
Examples of capacity-building initiatives about transport
Guidlines from the European Platform on Sustainable Mobility Plans, 2014
The Guidelines: Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (2014) from the "European Platform on Sustainable Mobility Plans" provide indications on how to design sustainable mobility plans that take into account different environmental and social aspects, among which is gender equality.
Gender in EU funded research: Gender and transport toolkit, Yellow Window Management Consultants, 2012
The Gender in EU funded research: Gender and transport toolkit from Yellow Window Management Consultants in 2012 gives the research community practical tools to integrate gender aspects into FP7 research. This includes equal opportunities for women and men and the gender dimension of research, thereby contributing to excellence in research. The gender and transport toolkit looks at how gender is relevant in the specific field of Transport in FP7. A first section briefly points out the broad relevance of gender within the field. The toolkit continues with a more specific discussion of the topics which have been put forward by the European Commission in the field’s work programme. This is followed by suggestions regarding gender-relevant issues which may be taken up by research teams. To illustrate how planned research in the field of transport can be made gender-sensitive, three real-life examples of projects are included. Each case consists of a short text presenting the project and a discussion of the gender-relevant issues in relation to the planned work, both in terms of equal opportunities and in terms of the content of the work. Finally, a selection of useful references dealing with gender in the field of transport is provided.
European Transport Workers' Federation, Gender Training Package
The European Transport Workers' Federation have produced an ETF gender training package, addressed to women and men transport workers. It is now available and aims to assist ETF member organisations in promoting gender equality at the workplace while encouraging women to join the trade union movement and take up positions in union structures. The training package benefitted by many contributions from union activists, workers’ representatives, as well as rank and file members. It was tested twice during the project, within 2 dedicated gender workshops.
World Bank, Mainstreaming Gender in Road Transport, 2010
The World Bank published Mainstreaming Gender in Road Transport in 2010, as an operational guide for World Bank staff. The guide aims to provide indications for both transport and gender specialists on how to mainstream gender-related considerations into road transport projects to improve development effectiveness, sustainability and to reduce gender inequality. The guide draws attention to the most basic ways in which gender affects and is affected by transport policies and projects and provides practical approaches to address gender-related problems in road transport projects.
Gender and urban transport: smart and affordable, 2007
The sourcebook Gender and urban transport: smart and affordable was produced by the German Federal Ministry of Development and Cooperation (Transport Policy Advisory Service) in 2007. It includes training materials on gender in the transport field with the aim of achieving sustainable transport, accessible to both women and men. Even though the guide is mainly directed at developing countries, indications on how to mainstreaming gender in transport policies can be used in other contexts. The guide also includes a series of indicators to monitor gender in the transport field and a checklist on how to analyse gender issues in transport policies and plans.
Examples of gender mainstreaming in transport
Sustainable Gender Equality - a film about gender mainstreaming in practice, 2014
In this 2014 film "Sustainable Gender Equality - a film about gender mainstreaming in practice", the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions showed how citizens, municipalities and regions can benefit from gender equality in snow removal to improve pedestrians’ mobility. The film aims to illustrate the principles of gender mainstreaming through concrete examples. The film is translated into English, German, French, Spanish and Finnish.
"Mobility of Care"
An innovative concept in the area of transport has recently been created: mobility of care. This concept emerged from a research conducted by the Spanish expert Sánchez de Madariaga who revealed that a quarter of the trips using public transport are undertaken for care purposes. This care-oriented mobility is not put forward in traditional transport statistics and indicators because they are usually found under other headings. Including these care-related trips into one category can be relevant for making care visible, considering that women are traditionally responsible for caring tasks. The author proposes a visual representation of this concept.
A policy cycle or programme should be checked both during – monitoring, and at the end – evaluation, of its implementation.
Monitoring the ongoing work allows for the follow-up of progress and remedying unforeseen difficulties. This process should take into account the indicators delineated in the planning phase and realign data collection based on those indicators.
At the end of a policy cycle or programme, a gender-sensitive evaluation should take place. Make your evaluation is publicly accessible and strategically disseminate its results to promote its learning potential.
Examples of monitoring and evaluating gender in transport
The Asian Development Bank "Gender Tool Kit: Transport, Maximizing the benefits of improved mobility for all", 2013
The Asian Development Bank Gender Tool Kit: Transport, Maximizing the benefits of improved mobility for all, (2013) provides guidance for transport sector and gender specialists. It draws attention to the gender dimensions of transport, and how to mainstream gender equality issues into transport project design, implementation and policy engagement. It guides users in designing project outputs, activities, inputs, indicators, and targets to respond to gender issues in transport. The guide includes a specific section on gender in design and monitoring frameworks for transport projects.
The existence of gender-related differences in mobility behaviour patterns has already been proved by a number of studies. In 2013, Forschungsförderungsgesellschaft's (Austria) project "Gender aware mobility quality" (GeSMo) contributed to the development of a comprehensive, gender-oriented evaluation model. This measures the mobility-related quality of a given location by considering transport-related evaluation criteria, specific weightings for group-related requirements and sustainable mobility styles, available data sources and different approaches for visualising mobility-related quality at locations. The toolkit, including the theoretical and methodological framework, is only available in German.
Maramba and Bamberger, A gender responsive monitoring and evaluation system for rural travel and transport programs in Africa, 2001
In 2001, Maramba and Bamberger published the handbook "A gender responsive monitoring and evaluation system for rural travel and transport programs in Africa: A handbook for planners, managers and evaluators". The purpose of this handbook is to provide practical guidance for planners, managers, and evaluators on the design and use of the monitoring and evaluation systems for the Rural Travel and Transport Program (RTTP), and to ensure these systems are gender-sensitive, capturing the impact of RTTP interventions on both men and women. The handbook is designed to provide an overview of the general principles of monitoring and evaluation design for RTTP programmes as well as to ensure that the systems fully address gender.