Act 31 of 1997 (Hungarian Child Protection Act)
The Child Protection Act (CPA) ensures children's rights to "physical, intellectual, emotional and moral development" (Article 6 (1)), "to be protected from circumstances that hinder his or her development" (Article 6 (2)) and "to be protected from … abuse, including physical, sexual and emotional violence" and it states that "children cannot be exposed to torture, physical punishment and other forms of brutal, inhumane and humiliating punishment or treatment" (Article 6 (5)). The child is endangered if his or her "physical, intellectual, emotional and moral development is obstructed or hindered" (Article 5 (n)). In this case there is counselling for the family or the child is placed "under protection" if voluntarily the family cannot make the necessary changes. In case there is no improvement, this can lead to removal from family. Also, if the child is severely endangered, that is, "he or she is abused or neglected in such a way that their life is endangered, or their physical, intellectual, emotional and moral development may be significantly and irreparably harmed," then the child is immediately and temporarily removed from their family. The authorities that can order and execute the temporary removal ("temporary placement"): notary, guardianship office, police, police for foreigners, refugee authority, prosecutor's office, court, head of a prison. The guardianship offices will decide on long-term solution after the temporary placement, based on a thorough examination of the case: if the danger is no longer present in the family, the child can return to the family; if the endangerment is still present in the family, the child will go to step-parents or a children's home. FGM is not mentioned in the law or in guidelines on child abuse.
Information collecting point
Regional Child Protection Services/Centres and National Institute for Family and Social Policy.