Trafficking in human beings is a serious crime and a gross violation of human rights. Trafficking is defined as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability, or through the giving or receiving of payments or benefits, to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation (including, at a minimum, the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, or the removal of organs).
Trafficking takes place in multiple settings and usually involves many different actors including families, local brokers, international criminal networks and immigration authorities. It takes place both between and within countries.
(1) United Nations (2000). Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime; (2) Council of Europe (2005). Council of Europe Convention on Actions against Trafficking in Human Beings.