Sex- and gender-based discrimination occurs due to interaction between sex (as the biological characteristics of women and men) and their socially constructed identities, attributes and roles and society’s social and cultural meaning for biological differences between women and men. Such interactions result in hierarchical and unequal relations and roles between and among women and men, and a disadvantaged social positioning of women. The social positioning of women and men is affected by political, economic, cultural, social, religious, ideological and environmental factors, and can be changed over time.
See also: discrimination against women
CEDAW Committee (2010). General Recommendation No 28 − The core obligations of States parties under Article 2 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.