Secondary victimisation entails victimisation of the victim of any act of violence and trafficking in human beings.
To limit or avoid any risk of secondary victimisation, a number of specific counselling, support and assistance services must be provided to a victim, as well as general procedural and service rights, including information rights, respect for victims’ dignity during questioning (abstaining from actions that can lead to the victim’s secondary victimisation during the investigation), anonymity for certain victims, trials behind closed doors in certain cases, screening from the perpetrator during testimony, officers specialised in victims’ issues, etc.
European Commission (2009). Member States’ legislation, national policies, practices and approaches concerning the victims of crime: Final study. Available at: