In development economics, the distinction as to whether entitlements (also known as claims) are direct or indirect is particularly important. It highlights the possible dependence of some actors on resource transfers from others or from the state, and the role of policy in changing entitlements. The related distinction between primary and secondary claims is of special importance in contexts where economic reform may be modifying entitlements and transfers, and in so doing producing a differential impact on women and men.
Alexander, P., and Baden, S. (2000). Glossary on Macroeconomics from a Gender Perspective. Bridge Institute of Development Studies. Available at: