Non-nationals who have moved (or are endeavouring to move) to a country from another one − often but not necessarily the country of their nationality − and whose presence in the former may or may not be lawful or regular.


Additional notes and information

Furthermore, the move (or attempted move) may not always be voluntary because sometimes the women concerned will have been brought to the country by force, improper pressure or deception, with a view to their future exploitation, and, in other instances, the compulsion to move may be the result of economic or natural disasters, or environmental catastrophes.


McBride, J. (2009). Access to Justice for Migrants and Asylum Seekers in Europe. Report prepared for the European Committee on Legal Cooperation (CDCJ) of the Council of Europe.