The study provides eligibility rates for each of the Member States and an overview of the main eligibility criteria that they have set. An intersectional perspective helps to identify which groups of women and men are most disadvantaged and most often left out of the parental-leave schemes. In the light of the directive on work–life balance for parents and carers, parental-leave policies are becoming increasingly more important as a work–life balance measure. It is therefore important to know how effective and inclusive these policies are.