Country report. Gender equality : Greece How are EU rules transposed into national law?
Greece is a parliamentary republic. The Greek legal order has a strict hierarchical structure provided by the Constitution,1 which is written and rigid and prevails over statutes. According to Article 28(1) of the Constitution international treaties introduced in the Greek legal order by statute and subsequently ratified prevail over statutes. Greek courts acknowledge the primacy of EU law over the Constitution. They apply EU law and they interpret and apply the Constitution in light of EU law, in particular in gender equality cases. All courts review the conformity of statutes with the standards of the Constitution, EU law and ratified treaties and either interpret the statutes in conformity with these standards or disapply those that they consider to be contrary thereto (Articles 93(4), 87(2) and 28 of the Constitution). There are three branches of the judiciary: i) administrative, ii) civil and penal and iii) the Court of Audit. The administrative courts hear claims against the State, local authorities and other legal persons governed by public law, including claims by their personnel and pension claims against compulsory social security schemes, as the entities that run them are legal persons governed by public law, except for social security claims by civil servants which are heard by the Court of Audit. The civil courts hear cases between private persons and the penal courts hear criminal cases (Articles 94-98 of the Constitution). [Introduction σελ. 6]