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Step 2. Identify existing gender inequalities and their underlying causes
Once you have the data needed to form a clear picture of the target group, it is important to identify existing gender inequalities and the reasons why they exist. Use the key questions below to guide this step. These questions specifically aim to strengthen the focus on work-life balance. They can be used to complement general analysis to identify inequalities between women and men in access to resources (work, money, power, health, well-being, security, knowledge and education, mobility, time, etc.) and their exercise of fundamental rights (civil, social and political).
General questions to ask:
- What differences are there between women’s and men’s participation in the labour market? In which occupational areas are women or men predominant?
- What are the differences in women’s and men’s earning levels? Are there significant differences in how many women and men work part-time? Do more women than men have more than one part-time job?
- What do data on time use or service use tell us about how women and men allocate their time? What does this tell us about gaps in local services, regarding availability and timings?
- Are more women than men providing care for children and other family members? Which age groups among women and men provide more unpaid care? For example, do younger women provide more childcare than men? Do older men provide care for their spouses? What services might support different people in these roles and enhance their well-being?
Questions specific to the ERDF and Cohesion Fund:
- What differences are there between women and men in information and communication technology (ICT)?
- What differences are there between women and men in research and innovation capacities, and the uptake of advanced technologies?
- What differences are there between women and men in skills and entrepreneurship?
- How might infrastructure and ICT solutions help to address care needs, build skills and expand employment opportunities?
- Is there a need for gender capacity development for programme authorities and bodies linked to the implementation of the funds?
Questions specific to the ESF+:
- Are there gender differences between unemployed young people, women and men jobseekers and inactive people?
- Are both women and men being targeted for self-employment and the social economy?
- Is there a need for more tailor-made assistance and support for labour market matching, transitions and mobility for groups of women and men?
- Do available data suggest that work-life balance challenges are constraining women’s employment opportunities?
Questions specific to the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund and common agricultural policy (CAP):
- What differences are there between women and men employed in the fisheries sector? Which occupational areas do women or men predominate in?
- What are the differences in earnings levels between women and men? Are there significant differences in women and men working part-time?
- Are there gender differences related to skills and entrepreneurship?
- Is there a need to specifically focus on viable incomes for women in farming?
- Is there a need to improve women farmers' position in the value chain?
- Is there a need to attract young women and men into farming and facilitate their business development in rural areas?
Questions specific to the European Agricultural Fund for Regional Development:
- What differences are there between women’s and men’s employment in the region or at the sub-national level? Which occupational areas do women or men predominate in?
- What are the differences in earnings levels between women and men farmers?