Policy cycle in environment and climate change
In this phase, it’s recommended that information is gathered on the situation of women and men in a particular area. This means looking for sex-disaggregated data and gender statistics, as well as checking for the existence of studies, programme or project reports, and/or evaluations from previous periods.
Examples of gender, environment and climate change statistics
The Environment and Gender Index (EGI)
The Environment and Gender Index (EGI), launched in 2013, is the first-ever tool to monitor progress towards gender equality in the context of global environmental governance. The EGI Provides the quantitative data to date on how nations are translating gender and environment mandates into national policy and planning, Shows how nations that take seriously their commitment to tackling women’s advancement in their environmental efforts are making huge strides beyond survival to long-term well-being for all their citizens and brings together variables that measure environment and gender in a composite index, ranking 72 countries worldwide along 27 dimensions divided into six categories: Livelihood, Ecosystem, Gender-based Rights & Participation, Governance, Gender-based Education and Assets, and Country-Reported Activities.
The WMID database was established to monitor the number of men and women in key decision-making positions and in order to provide reliable statistics that can be used to monitor the current situation and trends through time
Data can be used to monitor the current situation and trends through time on positions of power and influence in politics, public administration, the judiciary, and various other key areas of the economy, including the environment sector. The section on Environment covers the gender balance among politicians and civil servants with competences in environment at international, European and national level.
Eurostat – education and training database
This database produces and publishes indicators and analyses on the operation, evolution and impact of education, from early childhood through formal education to learning and training throughout life. Data and indicators disseminated include participation rates at different levels of education, enrolments in public and private institutions, third level education graduates, pupil-teacher ratios, foreign language learning, expenditure on education per student and relative GDP. Data are disaggregated by sex, age and educational level. The data collection on education statistics is based on the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED). For data on educational attainment based on the EU Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) the International Standard Classification of Education 2011 (ISCED 2011) is applied as from 2014. The database allows to calculate indicators in gender segregation in education, in particular in the employment and climate change related fields. The database is used for the calculation of an indicator (the proportion of women and men among third level graduates in natural sciences and technologies completing graduate/post-graduate (ISCED 5) as well as advanced research studies/PhDs (ISCED 6)) included in the set of indicators for monitoring Area K – Women and Environment.
Examples of studies, research, reports
United Nations Development Programme (2008) - Resource guide on gender and climate change
The guide is based on a study that presents principal conceptual and methodological advances on gender relations in the context of climate change. The overall objective is to provide guidelines for actors, practitioners and consumers in this programme area. It has been prepared through research, analyses and combinations of international frameworks, conceptual and methodological documents, and the compilation of case studies. The guide also considers the approaches that consultants take to deal with the topic, as well as views held by organisations and experts in this field.
European Institute for Gender Equality – EIGE (2012) - Review of the Implementation in the EU of Area K of the Beijing Platform for Action: Women and the Environment Gender Equality and Climate Change
The report prepared by the European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) reviews the progress made by the European Union Member States in the implementation of one of the 12 areas of concern of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action for Equality, Development and Peace (BPfA), namely of Area K: Women and the Environment. It is the first EU-wide report on gender equality and climate change which provides comparable data at the EU level. Furthermore, it introduces the first indicators to support policy makers in measuring progress in climate change policies from the perspective of gender equality.
International Union for Conservation of Nature – IUCN (2013)
The report presents the results of the pilot phase of the Environment and Gender Index (EGI), a project of the Global Gender Office of International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The index intends to help to measure progress in implementation, improve information, and empower countries to take steps forward for gender equality and for the environment.
Allwood, G. (2014). Gender mainstreaming and EU climate change policy
In: Weiner, E. and MacRae H. (eds) The persistent invisibility of gender in EU policy. European Integration online Papers (EIoP), Special issue 1, Vol. 18, Article 6.
The study examines how gender mainstreaming has been addressed in European Union climate change policy, finding out that with a few exceptions, EU responses to climate change are gender-blind. The article demonstrates that this happens despite the Treaty obligations to gender mainstream policy in all areas and despite the intersections between climate change and development policy, which is renowned for having taken gender equality and women's empowerment seriously and for instigating gender mainstreaming and specific actions as a means to achieve them.
Did you know that EIGE has a Resource and Documentation Centre? Check whether there is relevant information to feed into your analysis.
One of the first steps to take when defining your policy/project/programme is to gather information and analyse the situation of women and men in the respective policy area. The information and data you collect will allow an understanding of the reality and assist you in designing your policy, programme or project. Specific methods that can be used in this phase are gender analysis and gender impact assessment.
Examples of gender analysis
United Nations Environment Programme – UNEP (2007) - Towards gender mainstreaming in environmental policies, in women and the environment
The publication has explored the differing roles, responsibilities, positions and perspectives that women and men have in relation to natural resource use and management, with an emphasis on biological diversity, dryland systems and water resources. It focuses on the provision of a strategic model for gender mainstreaming in context with the environment and sustainable development. In particular chapter 6 offers a strategic model for gender mainstreaming in institutions dealing with environment and sustainable development.
Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe OSCE (2009) – Gender and Environment - A guide to the integration of gender aspects in the OSCE’s environmental projects
This guide aims to make the link between gender considerations and the environment visible. It aims to provide an introduction focusing on the basic knowledge of gender-related aspects of water, energy, land management, chemicals management, climate change, waste management and local environmental governance. The purpose of this guide is to present a comprehensive understanding of what gender mainstreaming means from an environment and sustainable development perspective and to provide guidance on how gender mainstreaming can be put into practice.
United Nations Development Programme – UNDP (2010), Gender, climate change and community-based adaptation
A guidebook for designing and implementing gender-sensitive community-based adaptation programmes and projects.
The theme of gender and the issue of climate change are cross-cutting issues that have to be mainstreamed into all programme activities of UN agencies. The guide provides simple tools and practical advice on how to take a gender-sensitive approach to planning and implementing adaptation projects and programmes regardless of context; thus it can be a useful reference for any development practitioners or policymakers working in this field. Chapter 5 is specifically dedicated to gender analysis.
United Nations Industrial Development Organisation – UNIDO (2015) - Guide on gender mainstreaming environmental management projects
The guide is intended to help national and local counterparts, agencies, international and private-sector partners, and individual experts involved in environmental management interventions to apply a gender perspective to their work and, more specifically, to mainstream gender throughout the project cycle.
Example of a gender impact assessment
Institute for Social-ecological Research – Institut für sozial-ökologische Forschung – ISOE (2001) Research on gender, the environment and sustainable development
The report is part of gender impact assessment studies launched by the European Commission in order to introduce a critical dimension in the way gender issues are treated throughout the fifth European Framework Programme for Research, Technology Development and Demonstration (RTD). These gender impact assessments are part of a process started by the European Commission with the objective to take the gender dimension better into account within research policy. The results of these studies will serve as a basis for the designing of future research policies at the Community level.
Consider consulting stakeholders (e.g. gender experts, civil society organisations) on the topic at hand, to share and validate your findings and to improve your policy or programme proposal. This will enhance the learning process on the subject for all those involved and will improve the quality of the work done at EU level. The stakeholders consultation process will start in this phase, but could also be considered as an important method to be applied along all the policy cycle phases.
Examples of stakeholders that can be consulted
The network works to achieve gender and climate justice by raising awareness and building capacity on gender and climate to improve climate policies; by increasing the knowledge base on gender and climate to identify effective mitigation and adaptation options; by empowering women and men to actively contribute to mitigation and adaptation; by enhancing cooperation on green and climate issues at all levels and by advocating for gender and climate justice as overarching, guiding principles.
Gender, Science, Technology and Environment network.
This is a policy-driven targeted network funded by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) which organises awareness-raising events across Europe.
In particular, in relation to energy and climate issues, its main objective is to provide a systematic overview of existing research, identify topics that need additional research and develop a research agenda on gender, energy and climate change. The network supports the integration of gender dimensions into the “climate action, resource efficiency and raw materials” challenge of Horizon 2020 by providing a basis for better addressing gender dimensions in this priority area for European policy and research.
Global Gender and Climate Change Alliance (GGCA)
Launched in 2007, the Global Gender and Climate Alliance works to ensure that climate change policies, decision-making, and initiatives at the global, regional and national levels are gender-responsive which is critical to solving the climate crisis.
In particular it aims to integrate a gender perspective into policy and decision-making, ensuring that financing mechanisms on mitigation and adaptation address the needs of poor women and men equitably, developing capacity-building at all levels to design and implement gender-responsive climate change policies, strategies and programmes, and sharing practical tools, information, and methodologies to facilitate the integration of gender into policy and programming.
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) - Global Gender Office
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an intergovernmental organisation. The Global Gender Office contributes towards IUCN’s vision and mission by providing innovative approaches, technical support, policy development and capacity-building to a wide range of partners, ensuring gender equality is central to sustainable global environmental solutions.
Women in Europe for a Common Future (WECF)
It is an international network of over 150 women’s and civil society organisations implementing projects in 50 countries and advocating globally to shape a just and sustainable world. WECF promotes gender-positive energy solutions and integrates a gender perspective into global UN climate change negotiations.
Women’s Environment and Development Organisation (WEDO)
This is a women’s advocacy organisation that works on a range of cross-cutting issues (climate change and natural resource management, global governance and finance, UN reform) towards 3 interlinked goals: research and raising awareness, fostering and facilitating networks and campaigns, and building capacity and training with women and women’s organisations, gender advocates, government and UN actors. While WEDO works at the international level primarily, it supports regional and national stakeholders, networks and governments to turn policy commitments on gender equality into action striving to improve the lives of women and men around the world.
Women’s Environmental Network (WEN), UK
The Women's Environmental Network (WEN) has been highlighting the vital links between gender equality, health and well-being, and environmental justice for over 25 years. It pursues this goal through campaigns, education and community work.
The Network of Women Ministers and Leaders for the Environment (NWMLE)
This is an informal network of female environment and deputy environment ministers and other female leaders in the environmental field. The network was formed in 2002.
In this phase, it's appropriate to analyse budgets from a gender perspective. Gender budgeting is used to identify how budget allocations contribute to promoting gender equality. Gender budgeting brings visibility to how much public money is spent for women and men respectively. Thus, it ensures that public funds are fairly distributed between women and men. It also contributes to accountability and transparency about how public funds are being spent.
Example of gender budgeting in environment and climate change
Alternative Futures, Gender and State Climate Change Action Plans in India
Alternative Futures, Gender and State Climate Change Action Plans in India have published research and policies to enable poor women and rural communities adapt to climate change.
This policy research examines gender budgeting components in state government’s adaptation-related public budgets. Focusing on the 4 states of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West Bengal, the ongoing study shows there is a wide variance between what different states spend on adaptation-oriented programmes. Also, not all states report on gender budgeting. Some still work with the more limited ‘Women’s Component Plan’ that earmarks 30% of funds/benefits for women, rather than the broader and more transformative gender-budgeting approach which is an ongoing empowering process and not just an accounting exercise. This gender budget computation will help to compare whether gender budgets within adaptation-focused policies and programmes do justice to the workload of women engaged in adaptation practices on farmland and allied activities.
Budlender, D. (2014) Tracking climate change funding
Learning from gender-responsive budgeting: International Budget Partnership Paper.
The paper aims to guide lesson-learning from the experience of gender-responsive budgeting (GRB) initiatives that might inform initiatives in respect of budgeting for climate change. In particular, the paper might help climate change work avoid some pitfalls and maximise some opportunities, pointing to what has not worked for some GRB initiatives as well as what has worked.
The paper highlights some experiences and challenges faced in all types of GRB initiatives, placing special emphasis on initiatives conducted in and by governments.
When planning, don’t forget to establish monitoring and evaluation systems, and indicators that that will allow measurement and compare the impact of the policy or programme on women and men over the timeframe of its implementation. Remember to define the appropriate times to monitor and evaluate your policy.
Examples of indicators for monitoring gender, environment and climate change
Proportion of women and men in climate change decision-making bodies at the national level in the EU Member States
This indicator provides information on the percentage of women and men in national authorities with the highest level of decision-making competences in environment/climate change, transport and energy policy. Data relate to the presence of women and men in the national environment decision-making bodies (environment, climate change, transport and energy ministries or government departments of national governments). Positions covered are: senior ministers; members of the government who have a seat on the cabinet or council of ministers; junior ministers; members of the government who do not have a seat on the cabinet; national administrations; level 1 administrators; highest level of administrative (non-political) positions within each ministry and level 2 administrators; and second level of administrative (non-political) positions within each ministry. The indicator is included in the set of indicators for monitoring Area K – Women and environment. In 2014, only 28% of environment senior ministers and 27% of junior ministers of the EU-28 Member States were women. At national administration level, 30% of level 1 administrators and 38% of level 2 administrators were women. Data are available on the EC-DG Justice Database on women and men in decision-making (WMID).
Proportion of women and men in climate change decision-making in the European Parliament and the Commission
This indicator measures women’s and men’s participation in decision-making on climate change policies at EU level. Data relate to the presence of women and men in the EU environment decision-making bodies (Directorates-General (DGs) of the European Commission with competences in environment, climate change, transport and energy, and committees of the European Parliament with competences in environment, climate change, energy and transport). The positions covered are: European Commission (political positions); Commissioner, Head of Cabinet, Cabinet members; European Commission (administrative positions); Director-General (Directorate-General), Directors (Directorates); European Parliament: Chair, members. As at 2014, at Directorates-General level 1 in 4 Commissioners is a women (DG Mobility and Transport), while the Commissioner of the DG Environment is a man, as well as the Head of Cabinet. Members of Cabinet of the DG Environment are equally represented by sex (50%). The indicator is included in the set of indicators for monitoring Area K – Women and Environment. As for European Commission administrative positions, the presence of women in DG Environment is around 29%. At the European Parliament level, 46% of the Members of the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety Committee are women. Data are available on the EC-DG Justice Database on women and men in decision-making (WMID).
Proportion of women and men in climate change decision-making bodies at the international level
This indicator provides information on women’s and men's participation in decision-making bodies working on international climate policies. It presents the percentage of women participating in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as part of national delegations and the EU delegation to the Conference of the Parties (COP) and to the Subsidiary Bodies (SB). The COP delegations to the UNFCCC represent the political negotiating and decision-making body on international climate change policies, and are supported by the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) and the Supplementary Body for Implementation (SBI). The indicator is included in the set of indicators for monitoring Area K – Women and Environment. As of 2014, the Bureau of the COP is composed of 27% women, while the delegations of COP and SB are composed of 40% and 48% women respectively. The National COP delegations are composed of 45% women considering all EU-28 Member States. Data are available on the EC-DG Justice Database on women and men in decision-making (WMID).
Proportion of women and men among third level graduates of all graduates (ISCED levels 5 and 6) in natural sciences and technologies at the EU and Member State level
Gender gaps in energy-related education is also relevant, as the environment sector requires workers with scientific knowledge and expertise in the sector, and women are strongly under-represented. An indicator for measuring the gender inequality is the proportion of women and men among third level graduates in natural sciences and technologies completing graduate/post-graduate (ISCED 5) as well as advanced research studies/PhDs (ISCED 6) both in public and private institutions. It is also included in the set of indicators for monitoring Area K – Women and Environment. In 2012, women graduated in natural sciences are the 53.8% of the total, while women graduated in technologies are only the 28%. It must be emphasised, however, that not all areas included in the calculation of the indicator are directly linked with energy and or climate change. Calculation of the indicator could be made using Eurostat data, Education and Training Statistics (online data code: educ_grad5: ‘Graduates in ISCED 3–6 by field of education and sex’).
When preparing calls for proposals in the framework of funding programmes, or terms of reference in the context of public procurement procedures (notably for contractors to be hired for policy support services), don’t forget to formalise gender-related requirements. This will ensure the projects and services which the European Commission will fund are not gender-blind or gender biased.
Example of procurement
International Trade Centre (ITC) (2014) - Empowering women through public procurement
Thisguide provides governments, procuring entities and other stakeholders with a deeper understanding of the challenges faced by women-owned businesses when participating in public procurement markets. Examples related to environmentally sustainable practices are provided.
In the implementation phase of a policy or programme, ensure that all who are involved are sufficiently aware about the relevant gender objectives and plans. If this is not the case, set up briefings and capacity-building initiatives according to staff needs. Think about researchers, proposal evaluators, monitoring and evaluation experts, scientific officers, programme committee members, etc.
Example of capacity-building initiatives about gender, environment and climate change
United Nations Development Programme (2007) - Gender mainstreaming – a key driver of development in environment and energy.
The training manual, divided into 2 parts, aims at examining environment and energy development projects, policies and decision-making processes from a gender perspective. The first part of the manual presents a brief overview of the issues, explaining why they are important and how to address them in practice. At the end of each module there are discussion topics, case studies, and resources for further reading, as well as a list of the assignments that are set out in detail in Part 2.
The second part of the manual provides additional materials for use in conducting training courses, including instructions and guidance for training facilitators, detailed descriptions of assignments and handouts.
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in partnership with the Global Gender Alliance
The training manual in gender and climate change is intended to improve skills around gender and climate change and equip and develop trainers in different regions and countries. It guides the reader through 10 steps to follow when planning training, including defining target groups, setting objectives and evaluation.
Australian National University (2015) - Exploring gender, resources and the environment
This is a graduate course offered by the Environmental Management and Development Programme which aims to engage with contemporary literature and theoretical perspectives to broaden the students' understanding of environmental sustainability. It explores women’s and men's participation and roles in environment and natural resource management with an emphasis on developing countries.
Example of gender language in environment and climate change
Women and Gender Constituency (2015), Position paper on the 2015 new climate agreement.
The Women and Gender Constituency (WGC) is one of the 9 stakeholder groups of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Established in 2009, the WGC now consists of 15 women’s and environmental civil society organisations and networks, and hosts an advocacy list of over 100 women activists and gender experts.
The paper intends to offer some recommendations on just and gender-responsive climate agreement. In particular, the authors recognise that the inclusion of women in national climate change delegations and as negotiators is vital in closing the already existing gender gap during negotiations and will result in strengthened gender language in the climate change negotiations.
A policy cycle or programme should be checked both during - monitoring, and at the end - evaluation of its implementation.
Monitoring the ongoing work allows for the follow-up of progress and remedying unforeseen difficulties. This process should take into account the indicators delineated in the planning phase and data collection based on those indicators.
At the end of a policy cycle or programme, a gender-sensitive evaluation should take place. Make your evaluation is publicly accessible and strategically disseminate its results to promote its learning potential.
Example of gender monitoring and evaluation on environment and climate change
Castaneda, I., Aguilar, C. and Rand, A. (2013). Measurement and reporting: Important elements of gender mainstreaming in environmental policies
Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy, 22 (3), Article 5.
This article identifies the advances and barriers in formulating gender-inclusive environmental agendas. It provides an overview of the manner and extent to which gender is highlighted in international agreements, national policies and reporting instruments. In particular, the study highlights 3 main concerns regarding the articulation of gender and the environment in the majority of national and global reports, one of which is related to the fact that gender and the environment are often presented as parallel and distinct agendas; nonetheless, achieving sustainable development requires their complete integration, thus solid monitoring and evaluation practices are fundamental in this process.
Schalatek, L. and Burns K. (2013) - Operationalising a gender‐sensitive approach in the Green Climate Fund
The paper is intended to support the process of mainstreaming gender into the processes and financing of the Green Climate Fund (GCF), that has been established by the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) at its 16th session at Cancun in 2010. The study demonstrates that the inclusion of core gender indicators at all levels is crucial. Such gender indicators have to be appropriate and smart in order to be effective for monitoring and evaluation of outputs, outcomes and impacts.