References to the European Convention on Human Rights in the United Kingdom
Claims can be considered based on Article 2(the right to life), Article 3 (prohibiting cruel and degrading treatment) and Article 8 (the right to respect for family and private life). A human rights claim can be part of the asylum claim under the Refugee Convention or it can stand alone.
Definition of 'refugee' in asylum law
As defined in the 1951 Refugee Convention
Definition of 'particular social group' and type(s) of persecution addressed
Article 3 (prohibiting cruel and degrading treatment) can be grounds for asylum in consideration of the European Convention on Human Rights. Article 3 can include fear of future persecution of a particular social group if the mother who has already had FGM fears that her daughters will be forced to undergo FGM
Number of asylum cases granted on the ground of FGM
In 2002 the case of M H refugee status was granted on the basis of Article 3, as the parent was unable to prevent FGM being performed on her daughter.
UK Programme report, FGM Asylum and Refugee Legislation in the UK Rights of Asylum Seekers Versus Obligations of Governments - FORWARD 2009
Information collecting point
The UK Border Agency