Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation of the phenomenon of FGM in Italy
Valutazione Quantitativa e Qualitativa del Fenomeno delle Mutilazioni Genitali Femminili in Italia
The research, financed by the Ministry for Equal Opportunities with funds allocated by law 7/2006, was carried out according to 2 methodological approaches: a quantitative one, through desk research on available data and some interviews with informed actors in order to come to a realistic estimate. The other one is defined as a 'motivational' approach with in depth interviews carried out by psychologists in order to grasp qualitative information that key informants may share (Medical doctors, cultural mediators, women's NGOs' activists). Prevalence is estimated applying WHO/DHS prevalence data from African FGM countries on the numbers of legal migrant women in Italy from the same countries. It is stated that these figures should be increased by the 20% as the proportion of illegal migrants in Italy is 1 out of 5; Another 30% is subtracted after this calculation, as from qualitative interviews it emerged that prevalence of FGM in countries of origins doesn't correspond to what is happening during migration.
Year of data collection
Legal migrant women resident in Italy from African countries where FGM are prevalent according to WHO/UN data.
Prevalence data on FGM
Migrant women coming from African countries defined as being of an "excissory tradition" (WHO/DHS prevalence data) are calculated to be approx 110.000. The average of women (in the 26 African countries) being victims of FGM is estimated as approximately 46%: based on the interviews this average has to be diminished and a "realistic" estimate is considered for the 30%: therefore it is calculated that approximately 35.000 of African migrant women in Italy have been victims of FGM, more likely in their country of origin.
Disaggregated data per age
As for young girls aged less than 17 years old a 30% less of prevalence compared to adult women shall be considered: there are approx. 4.600 girls aged less than 17 with African origins (from the 26 countries where FGMs are prevalent) and potential victims are nowadays approximately the 22% of this number: young potentials victims aged less than 17 are therefore calculated to be approximately 1.000.
In 2008: first 6 regions in Italy where legal women migrants from countries where FGM are prevalent: Lombardia 38.970 women of whom 3,9% aged less than 17; Veneto 15.340 of whom 4,3 % aged less than 17; Emilia Romagna 14.150 of whom 5,4 % aged less than 17; Lazio 11.312 of whom 3% aged less than 17; Piemonte 8.662 of whom 3,8% aged less than 17; Toscana 5.082 of whom 4,5% aged less than 17; other regions 16.486 of whom 4,6% aged less than 17.
Limitations of study
The overall methodology is not clearly explained, particularly regarding estimates on illegal migrant women in Italy and calculations of prevalence. Shifting from the 46% average DHS prevalence index to a 30% due to migration's impact is explained as an outcome of the qualitative part of the study but relations between qualitative and quantitative methods are not clarified at all. No disaggregation per country of origin.
Department for Equal Opportunities/Presidency of the Council of Ministries, http://www.pariopportunita.gov.it/images/stories/documenti_vari/UserFile...