Female Genital Mutilations and Human Rights in migrant communities. Report of the Research in the Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia Regions
Mutilazioni dei genitali femminili e diritti umani nelle comunità migranti. Rapporto di Ricerca nelle Regioni Veneto e Friuli Venezia Giulia.
Reported statistics from ISTAT on legal migrants residing in the Regions. Semi-structured interviews and Focus groups with 21 African cultural mediators, representatives of African gnus, 13 migrant women from African countries, 15 medical doctors and health care professionals, Police and Judiciary officials, 9 members of Regional and Provincial Commissions for Equal Opportunities and members of gnus active in the field of women's and migrants' rights. African men and women interviewed have been selected not only from countries were FGM are prevalent but also from African communities which are the most represented in the regional area which was the focus of the research. African women interviewed were aged 28- 50 years old and came from Somalia, Nigeria, Eritrea, Mali, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone and Egypt, Cameroon, Senegal, Ghana, Guinea. Interviews and focus groups have explored several dimensions from general attitudes regarding gender roles, to opinions about FGM and its prevalence among migrant communities in the area (with cultural mediators) and opinions about Law 7/2006 and its implementations, but also about professional experiences with victims or potential victims.
Degani, P., De Stefani, P., Urpis, O.
Year of data collection
The whole population of migrant women legally residing in the 2 regions coming from the 33 African Countries where FGM is prevalent. As far as the choice of migrant interviewees: comparing DHS data on prevalence in countries of origins and those on the larger African communities in the Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia Regions, decision was initially take to concentrate on Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast , Egypt,
Guinea, Eritrea, Somalia and Mali. Initial research results have suggested to include Nigeria given the prevalence of the practice among migrant women from that country and not to consider Somalia as a case.
Prevalence data on FGM
For the Veneto regions figures are reported about the numbers of migrant women legally resident in each Province from each African country where FGM are prevalent (Total Number of women in the Veneto region: 14.397) The practices seem to be a marginal phenomenon, mainly regarding adult women subjected to clitoridectomy in their countries when they were children. Women who are clients of Family Planning Clinics are those from Nigeria, Ghana, Senegal and only in minimum percentages from Somalia and Ethiopia. In Friuli Venezia Giulia 3339 women are legal migrants from countries where FGM are prevalent. Very few cases reported by interviewed health care professionals: 1 case of infibulation, a 35 years old woman, some cases (not specified) of women treated for deinfibulation; one case of a 10 years old girl who undergone FGM during her holidays in Senegal, and was then followed up by the local Family Planning Clinic. Interviewees state that several migrant women from Africa make use of private health care services and that clitoridectomy may be difficult to detect during a normal gynaecological visit
Disaggregated data per country of origin
Tables reporting number of migrant women residing in each Province of the Veneto Region per country of origin. No disaggregation as far as the figures for Friuli Venezia Giulia are concerned.
Disaggregated data per age
In 2008: first 6 regions in Italy where legal women migrants from countries where FGM are prevalent: Lombardia 38.970 women of whom 3,9% aged less than 17; Veneto 15.340 of whom 4,3 % aged less than 17; Emilia Romagna 14.150 of whom 5,4 % aged less than 17; Lazio 11.312 of whom 3% aged less than 17; Piemonte 8.662 of whom 3,8% aged less than 17; Toscana 5.082 of whom 4,5 aged less than 17; other regions 16.486 of whom 4,6% aged less than 17. Total figure in Italy: migrant women from countries where FGM are prevalent: 110.000 of whom 4,2% aged less than 17.As for young girls aged less than 17 years old a 30% less of prevalence compared to adult women shall be considered: there are approx. 4.600 girls aged less than 17 with African origins (from the 26 countries where FGMs are prevalent) and potential victims are nowadays approximately the 22% of this number: young potentials victims aged less than 17 are therefore calculated to be approximately 1.000.
Limitations of study
Very thick descriptions of how the practice is perceived and experienced by key informants but poor presentation of quantitative figures. No calculation or estimate about prevalence and potential victims in the Regions. No disaggregation per age group.