Romania - Intimate Partner Violence
Any deliberate action or inaction, with the exception of self-defence, that is either physical or verbal, perpetrated by a family member against another member of the same family that causes a harm, a physical, psychological or sexual or emotional suffering or a material prejudice, including threat of such acts, constraint or temporary deprivation of freedom.
Legal provisions on protection orders
Protection Order (Law 25/2012, Article 26): a person whose life, physical or psychological integrity or freedom is in endangered by the violent acts of family member can ask the court to issue a protection order in order to eliminate the state of danger.
Law 25/2012, modifying law 217/2003 regarding prevention and combating of family violence, Article 2
Family violence takes the following forms:
- Verbal violence: the use of offensive language, brutal language, insults, threats, humiliating or degrading expressions.
- Psychological violence: imposing the will or personal control over a family member. Provoking tension and psychological suffering. demonstrative violence against objects, pets, verbal threats, display of guns, neglects, acts of jealousy, constraints of all kinds as well as actions of similar effect.
- Physical violence: assault or battery through pushing, blows, hair pulling, slapping, slashing, burning, choking, biting in any intensity
- Sexual violence: sexual assault, harassment, intimidation, manipulation, brutality in pursuing coerced sexual intercourse, marital rapeeconomic violence – forbidding professional activity, depriving a family member of economic means, including deprivation of basic needs such as food, medicine, intention of theft of personal goods, deprivation of use of common goods, forced work, refuse to contribute to family expenses, imposing hard or dangerous labour on family members including minors
- Social violence: imposing an isolating environment from family, community or friends. Forbidding to attend school, restraining movement. intentional deprivation of information and all similar actsspiritual violence- sub estimating or diminishing the importance of satisfying moral and spiritual necessities through the interdiction, limit, ridicule or penalizing such aspirations by family members, denying access to cultural, ethnical, linguistic or religious values, imposing religion and spiritual practices on family members as well as similar acts