Gender Statistics Database
General questions about the Gender Statistics Database
What is the overall purpose of the Gender Statistics Database?
The Database is a comprehensive knowledge centre for gender statistics and information on various aspects of (in)equalities between women and men. Its main purposes are:
- To build a comprehensive collection of sex-disaggregated data, presented in accordance with EU’s political priorities
- To provide statistical evidence on the progress towards gender equality in EU Member States and beyond
- To act as a valuable resource for anyone working for the advancement of gender equality.
What are gender statistics and why do we need them?
According to the United Nations manual, gender statistics are ‘statistics that adequately reflect differences and inequalities in the situation of women and men in all areas of life’. Accurate sex-disaggregated and gender-sensitive data helps track the impact of policies and reveals where more can be done to close gender gaps. This definition of gender statistics is in line with the BPfA definition adopted at the UN’s Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China, 1995), which asked nations to ‘ensure that statistics related to individuals are collected, compiled, analysed and presented by sex and age and reflect problems, issues and questions related to women and men in society’. This data can be used to compare women and men on key socio-economic indicators, e.g. educational attainment, labour market participation, health outcomes or access to decision- making positions.
The Database primarily aims to gather statistics that are:
- sex-disaggregated and/or directly reflect gender issues (such as childcare spending and provision)
- based on concepts and definitions that adequately reflect gender diversity
- collected using methods that account for social and cultural factors that may induce gender biases in the data.
What gender equality issues are covered?
The Database includes over 2000 indicators on key gender equality topics. It provides detailed information on:
- Progress towards gender equality under several monitoring frameworks (EU policies and strategies, Gender Equality Index and Beijing platform for action)
- A broad range of gender-sensitive topics (Thematic areas)
- Gender equality in decision-making (Women and Men in Decision Making) and
- Violence against women (Gender-Based Violence).
What are the key data sources used?
The data sources of the Gender Statistics Database can be divided into three main groups:
- Data collected directly by EIGE from relevant EU and national sources:
- Women and men in decision-making
- Gender-based violence.
- Indicators to monitor progress towards the achievement of gender equality, computed by EIGE from a range of sources:
- Gender Equality Index
- Beijing Platform for Action.
- Indicators collected from key EU-level data sources. The main EU data sources are listed in the table below. The Database also contains indicators computed from other EU-level data.
Data Source Data collection Eurostat Administrative data on a range of themes EU Labour force survey (EU-LFS) European Statistics of Income and Living Condition (EU-SILC) Structure of earnings survey (SES) Community statistics on information society survey (CSIS) European health interview survey (EHIS) Adult education survey (AES) Eurostat-UNODC data collection on crime and criminal justice Eurofound European working conditions survey (EWCS) European quality of life survey (EQLS) Living, working and Covid-19 survey EU Commission EU Labour Market Policies database (LMP) She figures Data collection on trafficking in human beings in the EU EU Fundamental Rights Agency Survey on gender-based violence against women Women Against Violence Europe (WAVE) WAVE reports
How is the Database updated?
The Database is updated on a rolling basis as soon as new data becomes available. See the two tables below for an overview of release dates.
The timely update of the Database guarantees access to the latest available data and metadata and highlights data gaps.
Indicators from EU level data sources
|Eurostat||Eurostat online database|| |
Release calendars for the Eurostat indicators included in the Gender Statistics Database are published on the Eurostat website at this link. Updates on the Gender Statistics Database follow within a few weeks from the Eurostat updates
|Eurofound||European working condition survey (EWCS)|| |
See here for information on data release. Updates on the Gender Statistics Database follow within the same year of the micro-data release
|European quality of life survey (EQLS)||See here for information on data release. Updates on the Gender Statistics Database follow within the same year of the micro-data release|
|Labour market policies (LMP) database||Data are collected annually from administrative sources, as explained here. Updates on the Gender Statistics Database follow within a few weeks from the updates in the original source|
Eurobarometer special surveys
One-off data collection
|Women in science database (She figures)||One-off data collection without further updates (latest available year is 2012)|
|Women against violence in Europe (WAVE) reports||The Gender Statistics Database is updated as soon as possible once new reports become available (see https://www.wave-network.org/ for further information)|
|Data collection on trafficking||Data collection without fixed release calendar|
|EU Fundamental Rights Agency (EU-FRA)||Survey on gender-based violence against women||One-off data collection without further updates (data only for 2012)|
Indicators computed by EIGE based on secondary data
|EIGE||Gender Equality Index||New data are released annually|
|Beijing platform for action||Regular data collection.|
Indicators from EIGE's primary data collections
|EIGE||Intimate partner violence||Data collection without a fixed release calendar|
|Female genital mutilation||Data collection without a fixed release calendar|
|Women and men in decision-making||See below for detailed release dates|
Indicators from other data sources
|HBSC research network||Survey of health behaviour in school aged children (HBSC)||One-off data collection without further updates|
|IPPF (WHO)||Sexuality and education in Europe||One-off data collection without further updates (data for 2003 or 2006 only)|
Overview of release dates for the indicators on women and men in decision-making
Parliaments and assemblies
Regional assemblies, presidents and members by region (all indicators)
|December every year. Updates on regional elections are disseminated quarterly in March, May and September|
Parliamentary bureaus and committees
|Parliamentary bureaus presidents and members||September every year|
|Parliamentary committees: presidents and members||Septemver every year|
|European Parliament: president and members||Quarterly releases as follows: Q1 March, Q2 May, Q3 September|
|National parliaments: presidents and members||Quarterly releases as follows: Q1 March, Q2 May, Q3 September|
|Regional assemblies: presidents and members||Full data collection in December every year. Updates following regional elections are disseminated quarterly in March, May and September.|
|Local/Municipal councils: mayors and other leader and members||Every two years in July/ August|
Governments and other political executives
|Regional executives: presidents and members by region (all indicators)||Full data collection in December every year. Updates following regional elections are disseminated quarterly in March, May and September|
|European Commission presidents and commissioners||Quarterly releases as follows: Q1 March, Q2 May, Q3 September, Q4 December|
|National governments: presidents and prime ministers||Quarterly releases as follows: Q1 March, Q2 May, Q3 September, Q4 December|
|National governments: ministers by seniority and function||Quarterly releases as follows: Q1 April, Q2 June, Q3 September, Q4 December|
Regional executives: presidents and members
|Full data collection in December every year. Updates following regional elections are disseminated quarterly in March, May and September|
Political parties (all indicators)
|June every year|
Advisory committees (all indicators): European Committees
|Quarterly releases as follows: Q1 March, Q2 May, Q3 September, Q4 December|
Senior administrators at European level (all indicators)
|July every year|
|Senior administrators at national level||November every year|
Heads of monitoring/audit bodies
|European Court of Auditors: presidents and members||July every year|
|European Ombudsman||July every year|
|Supreme audit organisations: presidents||June every year|
Judiciary (all indicators)
|August every year|
Business and finance
Business (all indicators)
|May (B1) and November (B2) every year|
|European financial institutions: presidents and members||July every year|
|Central banks: governors, deputy/vice-governors, and members||July every year|
Social partners and NGOs
|European social partner organisations: presidents, executive heads and members||August every year|
National social partners: president, deputy/vice-president, executive heads and members
|November every two years|
|European NGOs: presidents and members||August every year|
Environment and climate change (all indicators)
|December every year|
Media (all indicators)
|July every year|
Education, science and research
National academies of science: presidents and members of the highest decision-making body
Every two years in March
|Research funding organisations: presidents and members of the highest decision-making body||April every year|
Sports (all indicators)
|November every year|
Transport (all indicators)
|December every year|
EU level (all indicators)
|August every year|
|Parliamentary committees dealing with health||September every year|
|Scientific advisory committees for COVID-19||August every year|
|National ministries dealing with COVID-19/health: ministers and administrators by seniority||December every year|
What quality criteria must data meet to be included in the Database?
EIGE has adopted the quality assessment and assurance framework of Eurostat’s European Statistical System (ESS) to evaluate data quality. Thus data quality is assessed against the quality evaluation principles outlined in the European Statistics Code of Practice. These can be divided into three broad blocks according to their focus:
- institutional environment
- statistical processes
- statistical output.
The Database often presents data collected by well-established EU data providers that satisfy the first two blocks, which means that the ‘statistical output’ block is the most important one for ongoing database updates and maintenance. The principles to evaluate the quality of statistical outputs consist of data relevance, accuracy and reliability, timeliness and punctuality, coherence and comparability, and accessibility and clarity.
New data can be included in the Database only when it complies with these principles.
General questions about database functionalities
How do I search for data on specific gender related issues?
You can search the Database in three main ways:
1. The Database tree
The Database tree is on the main page of the Database and includes seven main entry points:
- One entry point that focuses on monitoring the achievement of EU policies and strategies
- A general entry point containing a large number of indicators on a broad range of issues: ‘Thematic areas’
- One entry point focusing on EIGE’s Gender Equality Index
- One entry point containing the data on women and men in decision-making
- One entry point containing the data on gender-based violence.
- One entry point on gender mainstreaming
The entry points are divided into themes and sub-themes that can be browsed by clicking on the relevant entry point. For example, to search data on women and men at risk of poverty, click on the entry point ‘Thematic areas’ to view a list of its themes. Then click on the theme ‘Living conditions’, then ‘At risk of poverty’ and select its sub-theme ‘General indicators’. Within this sub-theme, there are several ‘at-risk-of-poverty rate’ indicators.
2. The basic search function
On the Database homepage, the search box appears below the heading ‘Browse Gender Statistics’. In this search box you can type the topic you want to find data on, or a phrase related to it. This will show all themes, sub-themes and indicators related to the search term.
3. The advanced search function
To search data, click on the button in the right top corner of the Database homepage. The text search function allows you to specify a search phrase (i.e. people at risk) which returns a list of indicators containing the exact or similar phrase matches. Use quotes to search for exact phrase match (e.g. “people at risk”). It is also possible to search by drop-down lists of keywords, source organisations, statistical activities and data type.
When viewing data, how can I select years and countries?
Countries and years, and other relevant data dimensions (such as gender or age group) can be chosen by changing the data filter settings. This can be done in three quick steps:
- Select the filter(s) that you want to change, either from a drop-down list of possible categories (i.e. time period, countries, units or age groups) or by ticking or un-ticking relevant tick-boxes (i.e. gender).
- Click on the apply button at the bottom of the filter setting box.
This changes the way the indicator is displayed, to show only data for the new filter settings.
How can I view data for the same country over multiple years?
By default, the Database presents data in a bar chart, which shows data values for a range of countries in the same year. To display data over multiple years for one or more countries, you can use a line chart:
- Click on the field called ‘Horizontal Bar Chart’ on the top of data display.
- Select the countries and years you want to display in the line chart (see question above for more detail on how to do this).
Questions about women and men in decision-making data
How can I access the women and men in decision-making data and what decision-making areas are covered?
The data on women and men decision-making can be accessed under the database entry point ‘Women and men in decision-making’. The data covers key decision-making positions in the following areas:
- Politics consists of data on parliaments/assemblies at European, national and regional levels; parliamentary bureaus and committees; local/municipal councils; governments and other political executives; political parties and advisory committees.
- Public administration covers senior administrators at national and European level; and heads of monitoring/audit bodies.
- Judiciary data focuses on national courts (supreme, administrative, constitutional), national public prosecutors and European courts.
- Business and finance presents data on largest listed companies, European financial institutions and central banks.
- Social partners and NGOs covers data on social partners at the EU and national levels and the European NGOs.
- Environment and climate change topic includes bodies associated with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); and environment decision-making bodies in EU institutions and at national level.
- Media consists of data on national public broadcasters and media regulatory authorities.
- Education, science and research focuses on national academies of science and research funding organisations.
- Sports includes statistics on women and men in highest decision-making bodies of national sports federations, National Olympic Committees (NOCs), European Confederations of sports, as well as ministers and administrators in ministries dealing with sports.
- Transport includes statistics on women and men in key decision-making positions with competences in transport at the national and European levels.
- COVID-19 includes statistics on women and men in key decision-making positions with competences in COVID-19 and/or health at national and European levels.
Where can I find information about the data collection methodology and coverage of the women and men in decision-making data?
Each indicator under the women and men in decision-making entry point is accompanied by comprehensive reference metadata, which follows the Eurostat SMDX Metadata Structure (ESMS). The metadata contains:
- Detailed information related to data collection methodology, including geographic coverage, positions covered and their definitions, data release calendar, data quality issues, and data sources and collection methods.
- Where relevant, detailed mapping tables (in pdf) that summarise positions and/or organisations covered by the indicator is made available.
Each indicator is also accompanied by a summary dataset description, which highlights key information from the detailed metadata.
This information can be accessed by selecting the metadata box located at the top of the data display (see metadata for central banks) and scrolling down through the page.
Can I view statistics on women and men in decision-making as a headcount, rather than as a percentage?
Yes, this is possible by selecting the corresponding unit of measurement (number of persons – headcount) in the data filter settings. This can be done in three quick steps:
- Launch the indicator you would like to view e.g., Central banks: governors, deputy/vice-governors, and members.
- From the filter menu located at the top of the data display, click the filter for “Unit of measurement”, and select the ‘Number of persons (headcount)’ unit from the drop-down list.
- Click the ”Apply” button at the right hand side of the filter setting box.
This changes the data display so that it shows data in absolute numbers (headcount) rather than percentages.
When viewing an indicator on women and men in decision-making, can I choose the decision-making positions covered?
Yes, this is possible by selecting desired position in the filter settings, following a similar approach to the question on unit of measurement above. This can be done:
- Launch the indicator you would like to view e.g., Central banks: governors, deputy/vice-governors, and members.
- From the filter menu located at the top of the data display, click the filter for “Position”, and select the desired position from the drop-down list.
- Click on the "Apply” button at the right hand side of the filter setting box.
Questions about data on violence against women
What are the main sources of data on gender-based violence in the Gender Statistics Database?
EIGE collects and disseminates data on gender-based violence from various sources in the Gender Statistics Database. Broadly, data collected in those sources can be grouped in two types, survey data and national administrative data.
Important sources of survey data in EIGE’s Gender Statistics Database are the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) survey on violence against women, Eurobarometer special surveys that include questions on gender-based violence, and Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS).
National administrative data in EIGE’s Gender Statistics Database is obtained from various national sources, such as the police and judiciary data. These data register offences, prosecutions, numbers of perpetrators and number of victims, amongst others. As definitions of crimes and data collection methodologies differ between Member States, these data are not comparable.
EIGE’s Gender Statistics Database also displays national administrative data compiled by Eurostat on trafficking in human beings, data from the joined Eurostat - UNODC project, and data from the Women Against Violence (WAVE) reports on women’s support services in Europe.
What information about gender-based violence does the Database cover?
Information about gender-based violence includes a wide range of topics:
- Incidence of different forms of violence (physical, sexual, psychological, and economic). This can include national administrative data (such as data on the number of offences of a particular form of violence reported to the police) and survey data (for example, asking respondents whether they have been a victim of a particular type of violence in their lifetime).
- Data on specific offences, such as Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). This data has been collected from national administrative sources and surveys and been compiled by EIGE through its studies on violence against women.
- Statistics on trafficking in human beings, such as information on the victims, the traffickers, prosecutions and convictions, collected by the European Commission.
- Data on the estimated annual costs of gender-based and intimate partner violence in the EU, based on compiled administrative data.
- Perceptions of gender-based violence which are predominantly informed by survey data sources, asking respondents their opinion and perceptions of violence as a social issue.
- Availability, awareness, use and quality of services for victims of gender-based violence.
Some topics include many indicators, (e.g. on the incidents of physical and sexual violence) as this data is more systematically collected by national institutions such as the police and is readily available. Other topics, such as economic and psychological violence are less extensively covered in the database as national data is more limited in these areas.
Why does data from different data sources on gender-based violence differ, for example in the case of number of femicides?
The data included under gender-based violence in the Gender Statistics Database comes from different sources. Survey data comes from different surveys, and national administrative data comes from different national institutions (e.g., national statistical offices, police and judiciary). While these sources may all collect data on the same topic, they use different methodologies, and this affects the comparability of results.
For example, in the case of femicide, the data comes from the joint Eurostat-UNODC data on intentional homicide which follows different methodologies and definitions than the national sources. Similarly, different surveys may formulate the questions differently or have different target populations, which could lead to different estimates.