Policy cycle in migration
In this phase it is recommended that information be gathered on the situation of women and men in a particular area. This means looking for gender disaggregated data and gender statistics, checking for the existence of previous research or projects, and/or evaluations from previous periods.
Examples of gender and migration statistics
The Eurostat database on migration and integration provides statistical information on migration data, as well as on indicators on migrants’ integration. All data are sex-disaggregated.
The database on migration and migrant population includes information about:
- migration flows;
- migrant population;
- acquisition of citizenship.
The database on asylum and managed migration provides data on:
- asylum (first-time applications: age and gender, unaccompanied minors applying for asylum, first instance and final decision on asylum);
- Dublin statistics (covering information on persons subjects to the Dublin regulation);
- residence permits;
- children in migration (asylum statistics and residence permit information on unaccompanied minors).
A thematic section on indicators on migrants and migrant integration provides a set of indicators on relevant integration issues, in particular:
- social inclusion (income and poverty rates, leaving conditions, material deprivation);
- health (status and care);
- education (higher education attainment, early school leavers, those not in education, employment or training, participation in lifelong learning);
- employment (labour status, activity rate, unemployment, employment and self-employment);
- active citizenship (long-term residents and naturalisation rate);
- Labour Force Survey ad hoc modules on migrant integration (provides data from ad hoc modules of the Labour Force Survey focusing on migrant women and men in the EU labour market).
- Most indicators in this thematic section provide sex-disaggregated data.
OECD migration databases. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) manages the Database on Immigrants in OECD countries (DIOC) and the Database on Immigrants in OECD and non-OECD countries, which includes the 32 OECD member states and 68 non-member states. The databases include census information and provide disaggregation for a number of variables, including sex, age and duration of stay.
IOM Migration Data Portal. The International Organization for Migration (IOM) manages a migration portal providing data and thematic information on migration. The thematic section on gender and migration provides an overview of key trends and data sources for each geographical area of the world.
UN Population Division: international migration. This dataset presents estimates of international migrants by age, sex and origin. Estimates are presented for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2019 and are available for all countries and areas of the world. The estimates are based on official statistics on the foreign-born or foreign population.
Examples of studies, research and reports
Crushed hopes: underemployment and deskilling among skilled migrant women: This publication intends to illustrate the professional setbacks that can derive from migration for qualified women and the far-reaching impact such losses may have on their well-being, sense of identity and family relationships. IOM, 2012.
Gender aspects of migration and asylum in the EU: an overview: European Parliamentary Research Service, 2016.
Female refugees and asylum seekers: the issue for integration: This study for the Women’s Rights and Gender Equality Committee presents an overview of the integration of refugee women in the EU, describing the barriers they face in accessing social and educational services and the labour market, as well as health issues. European Parliament, 2016.
Women on the move: migration, gender equality and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. O’Neil, T., Fleury, A., and Foresti. M., 2016.
Report on the legal rights of women and girl asylum seekers in the European Union – Technical report: Women and girls’ access to asylum in the European Union: This report looks at how women and girls access asylum in the EU and show that is no common definition of gender-based persecution throughout the EU, and women who seek asylum based on these forms of persecution face numerous legal challenges to prove their suitability for refugee status. UN Women, 2017.
Gender inequality and integration of non-EU migrants in the EU: This paper explores why a gender perspective is necessary in addressing the labour integration of migrants and argues for labour market integration measures specifically geared towards migrant women. Barslund et al., 2017.
Out of sight: migrant women exploited in domestic work: The stories of the domestic workers FRA interviewed for this paper reveal appalling working conditions and fundamental rights abuses in private homes across the EU. These stories indicate that, 7 years on from FRA’s first report on domestic workers in 2011, little has changed in terms of the risks and experiences of severe labour exploitation domestic workers in the EU face. FRA 2017.
Migrant, refugee and asylum-seeking women and girls in Europe: This report emphasises the need for better integration of a gender perspective in asylum and migration policies and analyses risks and factors that expose women to violence before, during and after the migration process and complicate their access to adapted protection. Institute of Political Studies, produced for the Gender Equality Division of the Council of Europe, 2019.
Gender-based asylum claims and non-refoulement: Articles 60 and 61 of the Istanbul Convention: This collection of papers offers proposals on how to use Articles 60 and 61 so as to assist policymakers, border and immigration officials and practitioners by providing them with practical advice. Council of Europe, 2019.
Gender-sensitive education and training for the integration of third-country nationals: This paper looks at how gender equality and women’s empowerment are considered in the policies and actions supporting the integration of third-country nationals through education and training. It draws on a review of EU policies on migrant integration and education and a review of five Member States’ policy frameworks and gender-specific actions (Germany, Greece, France, Italy and Sweden). EIGE, 2020.
Examples of gender analysis
Gender-specific measures in anti-trafficking actions: This EIGE report is on gender-specific measures in anti-trafficking actions, analysing the provisions and obligations under the Anti-Trafficking Directive and the Victims’ Rights Directive through a gender lens. Specifically, the report assesses the extent to which the directives have the potential to fully protect and assist women and girls, who make up the bulk of victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation. The report also examines the level of harmonisation of the directives with other European Union and international instruments on trafficking in human beings, violence against women and gender equality. EIGE, 2018.
Progress report from the European Commission: These reports adopted by the Commission every second year, include specific analysis on the gender dimension of trafficking in human beings, based on reports from the EU Member States to the EU Anti-trafficking Coordinator and from participants to the EU Civil Society Platform against Trafficking in human beings, taking into account relevant documents of the Council, European Parliament, international (for example UNODC) and regional organizations (Council of Europe-GRETA).
Policy Brief No 4: Making gender-responsive migration laws: This paper provides a methodology for developing gender-responsive migration laws, with a special focus on low-skilled women. UN Women, 2017.
Gender sensitivity in labour migration-related agreements and MOUs: This brief analyses the extent to which bilateral agreements and Memorandum of Understanding in the area of migrants’ work contain gender provisions. ILO, 2016.
Examples of gender assessment
Gender assessment of the refugee and migration crisis in Serbia and FYR Macedonia: This publication by UN Women provides a gender assessment of the response to the refugee crisis in Serbia and North Macedonia. It includes an analysis of the risks refugee women are exposed to, the services that are available for women and the obstacles women face in accessing them. UN Women, 2016.
Guide on gender-sensitive labour migration policies: This guide addresses the topic of gender and migration and provides practical tools for mainstreaming gender into migration policies. It high- lights the importance of sex-disaggregated data and explains how gender mainstreaming can be incorporated into migration policies through gender impact assessments, indicators and evaluations. It also discusses and presents current practices on existing immigration policies from a gender perspective. Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), 2009.
Examples of gender stakeholders that can be consulted
European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights: FRA is an EU agency providing expert advice on fundamental rights and supporting EU institutions and Member States in ensuring that the fundamental rights of people living in the EU are protected.
European Asylum Support Office: EASO is an EU agency mandated to enhance EU Member States’ practical cooperation on asylum in Europe. It provides technical and operational support to Member States with a view to meeting the international protection needs of refugees in third countries and showing solidarity with their host countries.
European Network of Migrant Women: The ENOMW is a migrant women-led platform of NGOs that work across Europe to promote the rights of migrant women.
European Women’s Lobby: The EWL is an umbrella network of women’s organisations – the largest in Europe – that works to influence the general public and European institutions in support of women’s human rights and equality between women and men. Their work includes a thematic area dedicated to migrant and refugee women.
International Organization for Migration: The IOM is the leading intergovernmental organisation in the field of migration and works closely with governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental partners. The IOM has 169 member states and is dedicated to promoting humane and orderly migration for the benefit of all. It does so by providing services and advice to governments and migrants.
International Labour Organization: The ILO is devoted to promoting social justice and internationally recognised human and labour rights, pursuing its founding mission, which states that labour peace is essential to prosperity. Today, the ILO helps advance the creation of decent work and the economic and working conditions that give working people and business people a stake in lasting peace, prosperity and progress.
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: UNHCR is a United Nations agency with the mandate to provide international protection and humanitarian assistance, and to seek permanent solutions for persons within its core mandate responsibilities.
UN Women: UN Women is the United Nations entity dedicated to gender equality and the empowerment of women. UN Women supports UN member states as they set global standards for achieving gender equality and works with governments and civil society to design the laws, policies, programmes and services needed to ensure that these standards are effectively implemented and truly benefit women and girls worldwide.
In this phase, it’s appropriate to analyse budgets from a gender perspective. Gender budgeting is used to identify how budget allocations contribute to promoting gender equality. It brings visibility to how much financial allocation is spent for women and men and whether money is fairly distributed. Gender budgeting is also a way to promote the transparency of public budgets.
Examples of gender budgeting
IOM’s Gender Mainstreaming Initiative: This publication by the IOM was developed to explain the function of gender-sensitive budgeting in the IOM’s gender mainstreaming strategy. It is a tool for IOM staff developing budgets. IOM, 2001.
- When planning, it is important to establish monitoring and evaluation systems and indicators that will allow measurement and compare the impact of the policy or programme on women and men over the timeframe of its implementation. It is also important to remember to define the appropriate moments to monitor and evaluate policies.
Examples of indicators to monitor gender in migration
Number of first-time asylum applications
This indicator provides the number of first-time asylum applicants in the EU by citizenship, age and sex. Data can be used to calculate the share of women and men asylum applicants.
This indicator provides data on the population on 1 January of each year by age group, age and citizenship. Data can be used to calculate the incidence of migrants on national population and the share of migrant women and men living in a country. The indicator is regularly collected by Eurostat.
This indicator provides data on the population on 1 January of each year by age group, age and citizenship. Data can be used to calculate the incidence of migrants on national population and the share of migrant women and men living in a country. The indicator is regularly collected by Eurostat
Migrants’ employment rate
This indicator provides the employment rates by age, sex and citizenship. Data can be used to compare the employment rates for migrant men and women, as well as migrant and native men and women. The indicator is regularly collected by Eurostat.
This indicator shows the residents who have acquired citizenship as a share of resident non-citizens, by former citizenship and sex. The indicator is considered a measure of integration. Data can be used to calculate the share of women and men who acquire citizenship.
In the implementation phase of a policy or programme, it is important to ensure that all those involved are sufficiently aware of the relevant gender objectives and plans. If not, briefings and capacity-building initiatives should be set up according to staff needs. Staff to consider include researchers, proposal evaluators, monitoring and evaluation experts, scientific officers and programme committee members.
Examples of capacity-building initiatives on gender and migration
Gender and labour migration trainer’s manual: This publication by the OSCE aims to raise awareness amongst policymakers and governmental actors of the contributions of female migrants to local economies, the barriers and obstacles women migrants face in entering the labour market and what could be done to mainstream gender in labour policies for migrants. OSCE, 2011.
Gender on the move: working on the migration-development nexus from a gender perspective: This manual aims to build the gender analysis capacity of those working in the field of migration and development. The manual also offers a series of tools to help design programmes and policies that strengthen the positive effects of migration in terms of development, both in origin and destination countries. UN Women, 2013.
The Gender Handbook for Humanitarian Action: This handbook provides rationale for integrating gender equality into humanitarian action and provides practical guidance for doing so across sectors. Inter-Agency Standing Committee, 2017.
Examples of gender language in migration
Gender and Communications Toolkit: This toolkit provides guidance on showing diversity and ensuring that communications materials are representative of entire populations. By doing so, it helps to give a more accurate and representative image of migration. The goal of this toolkit is also to advance gender equality through the IOM’s communications by highlighting the varied profiles of migrants, actions and engagement in multiple contexts. More concretely, it raises awareness of the need for more gender-sensitive communications by providing guidelines for an efficient gender analysis before designing and implementing a project. It also gives examples and inclusive language for written and oral communications as well as visual and audio materials. IOM, Media and Communication Division/Gender Coordination Unit, 2015.
A policy cycle or programme should be checked both during (monitoring) and at the end (evaluation) of its implementation.
Monitoring the ongoing work allows for the follow-up of progress and remedying unforeseen difficulties. This exercise should take into account the indicators delineated in the planning phase and realign data collection based on those indicators.
At the end of a policy cycle or programme, a gender-sensitive evaluation should take place. The evaluation should be publicly accessible and its results should be strategically disseminated to promote its learning potential.
Examples of gender monitoring and evaluation in migration
Gender and skilled immigration: challenges and recommendations: This paper presents an analysis of the impact of national policies for skilled immigration upon gender outcomes. Boucher, A., 2017, on the OECD Development Matters blog.
Civic Stratification, Gender and Family Migration Policies in Europe: This research project aimed at providing an empirically grounded analysis and evaluation of family migration policies in nine EU Member States; applying a gender-based analysis both to the analysis of family migration policies and to the impact of these policies on migrants; and developing basic principles that might help governments to design and implement fairer immigration legislation. Kraler, A., International Centre for Migration Policy Development, 2010.
Guide for the evaluation of programmes and projects with a gender, human rights and interculturality perspective: This guide was developed with the intent of integrating gender, human rights and intercultural issues into the UN Women policy and evaluation cycle. It is a practical tool for those who undertake, manage and/or use projects and evaluations. UN Women, Independent Evaluation Office, 2014.
The key milestones of the EU migration policy area
1999. Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty on European Union, the treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, 1997.
2004. Council of the European Union, 2 618th Council Meeting, Justice and Home Affairs, Council conclusions on immigrant integration policy in the European Union, including Common Basic Principles for Immigrant Integration Policy in the European Union.
2007. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – Towards a common immigration policy (COM(2007) 780 final).
2008. Council of the European Union: European Pact on Immigration and Asylum. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – A common immigration policy for Europe: principles, actions and tools (COM(2008) 359 final).
2009. Entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community, 2007. European Council: The Stockholm Programme – an open and secure Europe serving and protecting citizens.
2010. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – Delivering an area of freedom, security and justice for Europe’s citizens – Action plan implementing the Stockholm programme (COM(2010) 171 final).
2011. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – Communication on Migration (COM(2011) 248 final).
2013. Directive 2013/32/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on common procedures for granting and withdrawing international protection (recast). Directive 2013/33/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 laying down standards for the reception of applicants for international protection.
2014. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – An open and secure Europe: making it happen (COM(2014) 154 final). European Council Conclusion of 26/27 June 2014.
2015. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – A European agenda on migration.
2016. European Parliament resolution of 8 March 2016 on the situation of women refugees and asylum seekers in the EU (2015/2325(INI)). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – Action plan on the integration of third-country nationals (COM(2016) 377 final).