Act n° 325/1999 of the 11th of November, 1999 on asylum (modifying Act n° 283/1991 on the Police of the Czech Republic), Articles 12 to 14 (Czech Republic)
Refugee status (full right) granted in application of international conventions and domestic law, including for humanitarian reasons (articles 12, 13). Subsidiary protection (article 14)
Definition of 'refugee' in asylum law
This act applies a relatively broad, domestic-specific, definition according to which is entitled to be granted asylum an applicant when it is proved that "he was persecuted for his action in favour of civil rights and freedom (a) or that he fears, with reason, to be persecuted because of his race, sex, religion, nationality or ethnicity, belonging to a specific social group, or political opinion defended in the country from which he is a citizen or, in case he is a stateless person, in the country where he has permanent residence (b)". This act also introduces subsidiary protection, that can be granted for at least one year (renewable) to asylum applicants who do not meet the criteria fixed in the definition above. Is eligible to subsidiary protection any person "who fears, with reason, to be at risk of suffering serious prejudice if returned to his/her country of origin or, in case he/she is a stateless person, to his country of residence and who is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it". Prejudices include inhuman or degrading treatments (Article 14a).
Definition of 'particular social group' and type(s) of persecution addressed
Not specified as for sex/gender or more concrete grounds to define the belonging to one specific social group. Yet, persecutions on the ground of sex are mentioned.
Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic, www.mvcr.cz; Sbírka zakonů (Official Journal of the Czech Republic), http://aplikace.mvcr.cz/sbirka-zakonu/ http://www.euraxess.cz/dokums_raw/zakon427_2010_1.pdf