At the request of the Romanian Presidency of the Council of the EU, the report gives an overview of the gender pay gap across the EU. It provides insights into the gender gap in overall earnings and the implications for the gender pension gap. It reviews the major causes of the gap, including its variation across the life course and for different employee groups (e.g. educational background, occupation, length of service). It explores the links between the gender pay gap and emerging policy discourse on improving work-life balance.

More specifically, it looks at the role of measures put forward by the Commission’s proposal for a Directive on Work-Life Balance for Parents and Carers, such as parental and carer’s leave and flexible working arrangements. Work-life balance measures not only contribute to increasing women’s labour market participation but also to closing the gender pay gap. 

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