BPfA Areas
  • Online Panel Survey of Platform Workers: Technical report

    This technical report presents EIGE’s online panel survey of platform workers which was carried out in 2020 in ten Member states of the European Union (EU). The survey results are presented in the study on artificial intelligence, platform work and gender equality. Advancements in digitalisation brought profound opportunities, but also new challenges in the labour market. Among major developments is the growth of digital labour platforms in the EU.

  • Artificial intelligence, platform work and gender equality

    This report examines the opportunities and challenges for gender equality in labour markets transformed by artificial intelligence (AI) and platform work. To do this, it assesses the following issues from a gender perspective: AI-related transformation of the labour market, including working conditions, work relationships, the organisation of work and content. Working conditions and work patterns of women and men engaged in platform work.

  • Artificial intelligence, platform work and gender equality

    The growth of artificial intelligence (AI) technology and platform work is rapidly changing the world of work. These two phenomena have the potential to create new opportunities for gender equality, but at the same time can reinforce gender stereotypes, sexism and discrimination in the labour market. This policy brief is based on the report ‘Artificial intelligence, platform work and gender equality’ (2022) by EIGE.

  • Gender inequalities in care and consequences for the labour market

    The year 2020 marks the 25th anniversary of the Beijing Platform for Action (BPfA), the leading roadmap for gender equality in all spheres of public and private life. Many of the challenges identified in the BPfA in 1995 remain relevant today, including the gender pay gap and women’s disproportionate burden of unpaid care. This report focuses on BPfA Area F, ‘Women and the economy’, and explores the ways in which gender inequalities in pay are linked to gender inequalities in care in Europe.

  • Gender inequalities in care and pay in the EU

    There is a direct link between the unequal division of unpaid care in households and gender inequalities in the labour market. The bulk of unpaid care work is done by women, and this hinders their access to employment. The paid care sector has a large share of women employees who are often in low-income, precarious jobs, with few career prospects.

  • Beijing +25 policy brief: Area A - Women and poverty: women at greater risk

    The Europe 2020 strategy aims to lift at least 20 million people out of poverty and social exclusion. However, this target does not directly acknowledge the gender dimension of poverty and looks unlikely to be met; 23.3 % of women and 21.6 % of men in the EU remain at risk of poverty or social exclusion. More recently, the European Pillar of Social Rights emphasised the right to decent levels of income for people both in and out of work and highlighted that women and men should have equal opportunities to acquire pension rights.

  • Beijing +25 policy brief: Area B - Education and training of women: stereotypes and segregation persist

    Since 2013, the EU has made several commitments to address gender equality issues in education and training. The Strategic Engagement for Gender Equality 2016-2019 highlighted the need to address gendered choices in study subjects and subsequent careers. In 2015, the EU called for action to tackle gender stereotypes and ensure that teachers are trained to create inclusive, egalitarian and non-discriminatory learning environments.

  • Beijing +25 policy brief: Area C - Health of women: achieving gender equality in treatments, services and outcomes

    Gender stereotypes and socioeconomic inequalities continue to impact on access use of preventative and curative health services. For example, while the EU has done work to increase the access of girls and women living outside the EU to sexual and reproductive health services, there has been limited action to promote access to such services within the EU. To date, important unmet mental health needs of women and men persist, and access to sexual and reproductive health services varies greatly between the Member States.

  • Beijing +25 policy brief: Area D - Violence against women: response and eradication

    All EU Member States have criminalised some forms of violence against womenand, together with the EU institutions, have worked to strengthen legal frameworks and better determine the scale of the phenomenon. At EU level, gender-based violence is a policy priority, as reflected in the strategy for equality between women and men (2010-2015) and in the follow-up strategic engagement for gender equality (2016-2019).

  • Beijing +25 policy brief: Area E - Women and armed conflict: participation and protection in the EU

    The Beijing Platform for Action (BPfA) underlined the importance of women’s participation in conflict resolution and the promotion of lasting peace. It also recognised that women have the right to protection, as they are at particular risk of being targeted by violence in conflict, such as conflict-related sexual violence and forced displacement. These themes were later incorporated in the United Nations Security Council resolutions on women, peace and security (e.g.

  • Beijing +25 policy brief: Area F - Women and the economy: care responsibilities and insecure jobs limit women’s empowerment

    Women’s economic empowerment has long been a feature of EU policy, but the shift in priorities in the aftermath of the economic crisis has left the employment policy largely gender blind. Thus the Europe 2020 strategy includes a target of having 75 % of the working age population in employment by 2020 but does not distinguish between women and men.