irregular and/or precarious employment



Irregular and/or precarious employment refers to various forms of non-standard, atypical, alternative employment. Irregular and/or precarious work is frequently associated with part-time employment, seasonal and casual work, self-employment, fixed-term work, temporary work, on-call work, home-based workers, and agency work.

Dimensions of such work may include, inter alia, uncertainty of continuing work, a lack of control over the labour process, low income and limited social and regulatory protection. The erosion of the standard employment relationship may render the employment of women more precarious.


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(1) International Labour Organization – Bureau of Statistics. Defining and Measuring Informal Employment. Available at:; (2) Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development – OECD. Available at: