Although Slovakia made some commitments to gender equality in the early 1990s (e.g. the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action), gender-equality policies were further developed during the European Union (EU) accession negotiations. In 2001, the Concept for Equal Opportunities for Women and Men was adopted and it referred to gender mainstreaming as an approach to tackle gender inequality. During the accession period, the implementation of gender equality was enacted through the transposition of EU gender-equality directives. A few years later, and as a result of the twinning project Strengthening Slovak Administrative Capacities in Gender Mainstreaming, the National Strategy for Gender Equality, covering the period 2007–2013, was adopted and promoted a dual approach combining positive actions and gender mainstreaming. This is the first document in Slovakia providing a definition of gender mainstreaming and envisioning measures tackling structural aspects of gender inequality. In 2010, the National Action Plan for Gender Equality for the Years 2010–2013 was adopted by the government, and aimed at translating the existing strategy into concrete measures.